Summary: Artikelen Innovation & Entrepreneurship 2016
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1 Shane, S. and S. Venkataraman (2000), The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research
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What is the problem with the lack of a conceptual framework in the field of entrepreneurship?People have trouble identifying the contribution of the field entrepreneurship to the broader domain of business studies
On which nexus of two phenomena does entrepreneurship involve?
- The presence of lucrative opportunities
- The presence of enterprising individuals
What are the three sets of research questions about entrepreneurship?
- Why, when, and how opportunities for the creation of goods and services come into existence
- Why, when, and how some people and not others discover and exploit these opportunities
- Why, when, and how different modes of action are used to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities
What do the authors argue about equilibrium models?Some models are useful for understanding entrepreneurship, but these models are necessarily incomplete. Entrepreneurial opportunities either do not exist or are assumed to be randomly distributed across the population. People in equilibrium models cannot discover opportunities that differ in value from those discovered by others, who becomes an entrepreneur depends solely on the attributes of people.
Why do some people and not others engage in entrepreneurial behavior?Because of the tendency to respond to situational cues of opportunities. Not a stable characteristic that differentiates some people from others.
Why study entrepreneurship?
- Much technological info embodied in products & services - entrepreneurship is a mechanism by which society converts technical info into these products and services
- Entrepreneurship is a mechanism through which temporal and spatial inefficiencies are discoverd and mitigated
- Entrepreneurship is the crucial engine in society
How is the recognition of opportunities called?A subjective process, although the opportunities themselves are objective phenomena that are not known to all parties at all times
What do opportunties to enhance the efficiency of existing goods, services, raw materials, and organizing methods require?Optimization within exising means-end frameworks
What are the three different categories of opportunities?
- The creation of new information (as occurs with the invention of new technologies)
- The exploitation of market inefficiences (that result form information asymmetry, as occurs across time and geography)
- The reaction to shifts in the relative costs and benefits of alternative uses for resources (as occurs with political, regulatory, or demographic changes)
Why do entrepreneurial opportunities primarily exist?Because different members of society have different beliefs about the relative value of resources, given the potential to transform them into a different state
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