Summary: Mens En Dierkunde Ii | Wageningen
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1 H17: Zenuwstelsels en gedrag in het dierenrijk
1.1 Zoo Chptr 33: Nervous coordination
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Difference nervous system vertebrate and bilateral invertebrates?
The nervous system of the vertebrates is hollow, dorsal and terminates anteriorly in a brain. Invertebrates have a solid nerve cord ventral to their alimentary canal (gut).
Describe the human spinal cord.
Segmental nerves, 31 pairs, separated into dorsal sensory roots and ventral morot roots. Sensory nerve cell bodies are gathered together into dorsal root (spinal) ganglia. Both dorsal and ventral roots meet beyond the spinal cord to form a mixed spinal nerve.
The spinal cord encloses the spinal canal and all is wrapped in three layers of meninges. The two zones are the inner grey matter (containing cell bodies of motor neurons and interconnecting interneurons) and the outer white matter (containing bundels of axons and dendrites).
What is a reflex arc?
A unit of neural operation, usually consistant of 1) a receptor, 2) an afferent (or sensory neuron that carries signals towards the CNS), 3) the CNS, 4) an efferent (or motor neuron that carries the signals from the CNS and makes a synaptic connection with the interuneuron), 5) an effector (muscles, glands, cells..).
What is a reflex act?
A response to a stimulus ating over a reflex arc(s) (involuntary).
What parts are located in the hindbrain and what do they do?
The medulla oblongata, together with the last part of the midbrain makes up the brainstem controlling vital and largely subconcious activities (heartbeat, respiration, vascular tone, gastric secretions..).
The pons, contains a thick bundle of fibers that carry impulses from one side of the cerebellum to the other and connects the cerebellum and medulla to other parts of the brain.
The cerebellum, dorsal to the medulla, controlls equilibrium, posture, and movement. It does not initiate movement but operates as a precision error-control center.
What is the midbrain responsable for and consist out of? Changed much over time?
Consists of the tectum (including the optic nuclei), which contains nuclei that serve as centers for visual and auditory rflexes. Changed in function not in shape.
What centers are found in the forbrain and where are they located?
The most posterior elements are the hypothalamus and the thalamus. The anterior portion of the forbrain (cerebrum) can be divided into the paleocortex (limbic system including the hippocampus) and the neocortex (cerebralcortex).
What do the thalamus and hypothalamus do?
Thalamus - relay station that analyzes and passes sensory information to higher brain centers.
Hypothalamus - homeostasis regulating centers. Also produces neurohormones and regulates reproduction and sexual behaviour and participates in emotional behaviour.
What do the neocortex and paleocortex regulate?
The paleocortex better known as the limbic system mediates several species specific behaviours that relate to sex and feeding (rhinencephalon/nose brain). The hippocampus related to learning and memory.
The neocortex/cerebralcortex regulates almost all intergrative activities and includes discrete moror and sensory areas (muscle movement and pressure, pain..). Vision, smell, hearing and speech. Association areas are also found, concerned with memory, judgement, reasoning..
What is the difference between the left and right side of the brain and how are they connected with eachother?
Connected by the corpus callosum, the left is responsable for language development, maths, learning and sequential thought processes and the right side is responsable for spatial, musical, artistic, intuitive and perceptual activities
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