Summary: Physical Hydrology Third Edition  9781478628071  S Lawrence Dingman
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1 Hydrology: Basic Concepts and Challenges

1.3 Physical Quantities and Laws

On which basic laws of classical physics are hydrologic relationships most often based?
 Conservation of mass
 Newton's laws of motion
 Conservation of energy
 (Fick's first law of difussion)

1.4.1 Dimensions
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What 3 points are stated in Newtons Law of Motion?
Conservation ofmomentum (body stays still unless external force acts on it) Change of
momentum is at same rate as force acting on body, in same direction. Force=Mass*Acceleration  There is always a
corresponding force in the other direction with the samemagnitude

What does Fick´s Law say?
Fick´s Law of diffusion says that a diffusing substance always moves from high to low concentration 
What do the 2 laws of thermodynamics say?
 Energy is neither created or destroyed
 heat energy always moves from the warmer to the cooler body
 Energy is neither created or destroyed

1.4.3 Dimensional Properties of Equations
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What are the two most important rules in terms of equations?
 A dimensionally homogeneous equation that completely and correctly describes a physical relation has the same dimensions on both sides of the equal sign.
 In equations, the dimensions and units of quantities are subject to the same mathematical operations as the numerical magnitudes.

Hydrologists are often forced to develop and rely on relatively simple empirical equations which may be dimensionally inhomogeneous. What are empirical equations and how are they developed?
Equations based on observed relations between measured quantities which are developed via thestatistical process ofregression analysis. 
1.5.2 Density
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What are the two environmental consequences of the anomalous density behavior of water?
 As ice is less dense than liquid water, rivers and lakes freeze from the surface downward.
 A lake water temperature reaching 3.98 degrees Celsius controls the vertical distribution of temperature and causes an annual or semiannual overturn of water having a major influence on biological and physical processes.

1.5.3 Surface Tension
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By which factors can surface tension of water be affected?
 Temperature increase (decrease in surface tension)
 The presence of dissolved substances (decrease or increase)
 Certain organic compounds

1.5.4 Viscosity and Turbulence
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What describes the noslip condition?
It states that the flow velocity at a boundary is zero. Any flow near a boundary experiences a velocity gradiënt perpendicular to the boundary. 
What does the dimensionless Reynolds number represent?
The relative importance of the viscous and turbulent resistance in a flow. Re = U x L x rho/mu
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