Summary: Western Civilization : Beyond Boundaries | 9780495897903 | Thomas F X Noble, et al

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Western civilization : beyond boundaries | 9780495897903 | Thomas F.X. Noble, Barry Strauss, Duane Osheim.

  • 19 An Age of Revolution

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  • What was the outcome of the French Revolution?

    The most powerful monarch in Europe was forced to accept constitutional limits to his power by subjects convinced of their rights.
    A shift of the balance of power is visible and a spread of revolutionary ideas.
    A new understanding of the people came in play: the people were the nation and had the right to representation in government.
    Public opinion was shaped and was to be taken in account.
  • How did the revolutionary ideas spread through Europe?

    In the late 1790's the French revolutionary army, that first fought to expel foreigners, began a conquest of other European states led by Napoleon Bonaparte. With him came imperial aggression as well as revolutionary change through the Code Napoleon.
  • What influence had the American Revolution on the French Revolution and Europe and how?

    In the late 18th century the Atlantic world was united by commerce and also shared ideals about liberty/liberal sentiments. When American colonists declared their independence from Britain in 1776 and the U.S. Constitution was drawn up in 1787, liberal ideas sparked in the whole of Europe. Attempts at liberal reform began in several states (ripple effects):
    1. In Britain divided loyalties how to react to the revolt of the American colonies.
    2. The Volunteer Movement in Ireland in 1779 for greater autonomy from Britain and abolishment of the commerce restrictions for the Irish. In 1782 this was granted. 
  • 20.1 preconditions for industrialization

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  • what change in population helped facilitate the industrial revolution?

    the population grew and needed labor for food production decreased
  • what changes in agriculture facilitated this?

    new technology, knowledge and crops increased food productivity, efficiency and therefore, less hands were required to produce more food
  • what changes in health care also helped?

    the mortality rate sinificantly dropped due to improvements in hygene and food, making people more resilient to disease
  • what was the putting-out-system?

    the putting-out-system was the system where people took part in production in their own home, often having their own job in production. one household would take up a part of production and a second household the next part. entrepeneurs utilized families with above average quality or skill at certain tasks to improve overall quality, increasing profit, allowing the buildup of wealth to improve investments 
  • why was brittain first to start their industrial revolution?

    brittain had a lead because they had wealth from trade, a standard currency, tax and tarrifs and movement between classes was possible. they had territories, providing a market to sell to and a source for materials. they had a national bank, providing loans and investements
  • what geographical factors aided brittains lead?

    brittain had large deposits of coal and iron in close proximity to each other, used to process iron, and plenty of waterways to transport goods. there were very few tollroads, allowing transport of goods
  • how did population growth help?

    the population grew significantly due to good harvests from 1750 to 1800. these people formed a large worlkforce and since fewer farmers were needed, more people moved to the city. they also provided a larger demand, creating a larger need for products

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