Summary: Advanced Research Methods
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1 Essentials of quantitative research

1.1 Descriptive statistics
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What are the five descriptive statistics?
 Mean
 Median
 Standard deviation
 Percentiles
 proportions
 Mean

1.2 Measures of association
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What is a positive corelation?
It indicates the extent to which those variables increase or decrease in parallel. 
What is a sample proportion?
The amount of the sample that shares a commonality relative to its whole. 
What is the relative risk / risk ratio (RR)?
It is the ratio of the probability of an outcome in an exposed group to the probability of an outcome in an unexposed group. 
Which three measures together measure the association between the exposure and the outcome?
 Relative risk / risk ratio
 Odds ratio
 Risk difference
 Relative risk / risk ratio

What is the risk difference (RD)
It is the difference between the risk of an outcome in the exposed group and the unexposed group.
I.e. Excess risk / attributable risk 
How do we compute the risk difference? (RD)
It is computed as I{e}  I{u} I{e} = incidence in the exposed group
 I{u} = incidence in the unexposed group

What is the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and what is it computed as?
If the risk of an outcome is increased by the exposure.
Computed as I{u}  I{e} part of risk difference

How to inverse the absolute risk reduction (ARR) and how to inverse the absolute risk increase (ARI)?
ARR: the number needed to treat
ARI: increase the number needed to harm. 
What is an odds ratio (OR)?
Astatistic thatquantifies the strength of the association between two events, A and B.
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