History - The Eighteenth Century

17 important questions on History - The Eighteenth Century

What was the matter with the parliament between England and Scotland?

in the eighteenth century, the had the first same parliament.

What act was passed in 1707?

It was the Act of Union, in which the Scottish Parliament was dissolved and some of its members joined the English and Welsh parliament in London and the former two kingdoms became one 'United Kingdom of Great Britain'. However, Scotland remained its own system of law, more similar to continental European systems than that of England's. It does so to this day. 

Who is Bonnie Prince Charlie?

He is a popular romantic legend. His army of highland is defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Actual name is Charles Edward.
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Describe the loyalties of the Wigs and the Tories in the eighteenth century.

Wigs were political descentants of parliamentarians who supported protestant values of hard work and thrift and believed in government  by monarch and aristocracy together. Later they became the Liberals. Tories believed more in the power of the monarch and the importance of the Anglican church. They became the conservatives.

How come that the 18th century was politically stable?

Monarch and Parliament got on quite well together because of the Power of Patronage. This means that the monarch has the ability to give people jobs. Therefore, the monarch's favorite politicians were able to control the election and voting habits of a large number MPs in the House of Commons.

In the 18th century, the newly emerging industrial mode of production caused a great upheaval in the pattern of everyday life. In what way did it change?

Areas of common land, which had been used by everybody in a village, disappeared as landowners incorporated them into their increasingly large and more efficient farms. Millions moved from rural areas into new towns and cities.

Explain the beginning of the party system in Britain.

Within Parliament, the bitter divisions of the previous century were echoed in the formation of two vaguely opposed, loose collections of allies. 
  1. Whigs: political descendants of the parliamentarians. 
  • They supported the Protestant values of hard work and thrift
  • Were sympathetic to dissenters
  • Believed in government by monarch and aristocracy together.
  1. Tories: had a greater respect for the idea of the monarchy and the importance of the Anglican Church.

Why did London in this period (18th century) come to dominate as a city?

The north became the industrial heartland of the country. London became to dominate as a business and trading centre.

What were the origins of modern government in the 18th century?

Hanoverian, German Kings who could not speak English appointed a principal minister to head the government. Also a system of annual budget was drawn up by the monarch's treasury officials, to be approved by Parliament. Hansard (written records of the debates of Parliament) were published freely for the first time in 1771

What part of Britain was most strongly affected by the Industrial Revolution. Why?

The North became the industrial hartland of the country because of the avalability of raw materials like coal and iron ore.

What is a ‘country seat’?  Why did it become popular in the 18th century?

A gracious country mansion with land attached. Despite all the urban development in the 18th century, social power and prestige rested on the possession of land in the countryside.

What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution?

  1. The greatly increased trade allowed that Britain gradually acquired an empire in the Americas, along the west African coast and in India. 
  2. Technical innovations in manufacture and transport.

Areas of common land disappeared as landowners incorporated them into their increasingly large and more efficient farms. Millions moved from rural areas into new towns and cities.

Which 3 areas became industrially important in the 18th century?

North England + South Wales + Lowlands

Who was Nelson? and Robbert Peel?

Admiral Horatio Nelson was commander of the British fleet which defeated Napoleons'french fleet at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Robbert Peel was a government minister who organised the first modern police force (known as 'Bobbies')

What is a country seat?

gracious country house with lands attached. Showed prestige and social power of the owner.

What was the Boston Teaparty?

A protest by Bostonians against the British taxes. A group of Bostonians threw all the tea of the ships in Boston in the water.

Important dates in the 18th century (1700-1800)

  • 1707 = The Act of Union is passed = The Scottish Parliament joins the English and Welsh parliament in London
  • 1782 = James Watt invents the first steam engine
  • 1783 = After a war, Britain loses the southern half of its Nothern American colonies
  • 1788 = The first British settlers (convicts and soldiers) arrive in Australia
  • 1800 = The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed (after the separate Irish parliament is closed

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