Viruses and Their Replication - An Overview of Animal Virus Infection

6 important questions on Viruses and Their Replication - An Overview of Animal Virus Infection

What are the two differences between bacterial and animal viruses?

  • The entire virion of animal viruses enters the host cell
  • Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus, where many animal viruses replicate

If an animal virus initially evades the immune system, animal viruses can catalyze at least four different outcomes. Give these outcomes.

  • A virulent infection
  • A latent infection
  • A persistent infection
  • Transformation

What is a latent infection?

A latent infection gives a delay between infection by the virus and lytic events. The viral DNA exists in the host's genome and virions are not produced until induction takes place.
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What is a persistent infection?

A persistent infections means release of virions is slow and the host cell may not be lysed.

What enzyme do retroviruses use to transfer information from RNA to DNA?

Reverse transcriptase

Describe the replication of a retrovirus.

  1. Entry and uncoating of the retrovirus
  2. Activity of the reverse transcriptase (2 steps, 2 single standed RNAs into double stranded DNA)
  3. Viral DNA enters nucleus and integrates into host genome
  4. Transcription by host RNA polymerase forms viral mRNA and genome copies
  5. Translation of mRNA forms viral proteins; new nucleocapsids are assembled and released by budding

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