Vectorborne and soilborne bacterial and viral diseases - Anthrax

7 important questions on Vectorborne and soilborne bacterial and viral diseases - Anthrax

Describe the forms of human anthrax and their respective modes of entry.

Anthrax manifests as cutaneous (breaks in the skin), intestinal (ingestion of endospores), and inhalation (inhalation of endospores, an occupational hazard for farm workers).

Explain the pathogenesis of anthrax, including the role of toxins and the bacterial capsule.

Anthrax pathogenesis involves lethal toxin and edema toxin causing varying severity in different forms. The unusual protein capsule aids bacterial survival by preventing phagocytosis.

Discuss the prevention strategies and treatment options for anthrax.

Prevention involves limiting exposure to farm animals and avoiding contaminated materials. Antibiotics are effective, with a vaccine recommended for high-risk individuals.
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Explore the epidemiology of anthrax, including its natural habitat and occurrence.

Anthrax is enzootic worldwide, primarily in farm animals, with soil as its natural habitat. It poses an occupational hazard, especially inhalation anthrax for farm workers.

Evaluate the use of the anthrax vaccine, specifying the recommended recipients and its application in livestock.

    • The anthrax vaccine is recommended for high-risk individuals and is also used in livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses.

What are the major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis?

Bacillus anthracis major virulence factors include its capsule and the anthrax toxin.

What are the three forms of anthrax, and which is most dangerous?

Cutaneous, inhalation, gastrointestinal. Inhalation is most dangerous due to severe respiratory symptoms.

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