Diagnosis Infectious Disease - the clinical microbiology laboratory

3 important questions on Diagnosis Infectious Disease - the clinical microbiology laboratory

How was trehalose modified for use in diagnostic assays, and what role does the indicator dye DMN play in the process?

Trehalose was chemically modified to be easily detectable. The indicator dye 4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,8-naphthalimide (DMN) was chosen, and by conjugating DMN to trehalose (creating DMN-Tre), researchers allowed living M. tuberculosis cells to incorporate DMN-Tre into their cell wall. This incorporation made it possible to visualize the pathogen in sputum samples.

Why is laboratory safety crucial in clinical microbiology, and what biohazards are associated with clinical laboratories?

Laboratory safety is crucial in clinical microbiology due to the potential biohazards associated with handling dangerous materials. Clinical laboratories handle biohazards that pose risks to personnel, including infectious agents like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

What is the significance of biosafety levels (BSL) in laboratory classifications, and what are the key features of BSL-1, BSL-2, BSL-3, and BSL-4?

Biosafety levels (BSL) classify laboratories based on their containment capabilities. BSL-1 and BSL-2 are common in teaching and research, while standard clinical laboratories operate at BSL-2. BSL-3 facilities are for major clinical centers and research, and BSL-4 ensures total isolation and containment, with only a few operational worldwide, often associated with government facilities.

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