Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Diptheria and Pertrussis

3 important questions on Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Diptheria and Pertrussis

Explain the pathogenic mechanism of diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. What role does the diphtheria toxin play in the disease, and how is diphtheria diagnosed?

Diphtheria is caused by C. diphtheriae, which produces the diphtheria toxin. The toxin inhibits protein synthesis in the host, leading to cell death. The disease is diagnosed by isolating C. diphtheriae from throat swabs, and a pseudomembrane in the throat is characteristic.

Describe the clinical manifestations of pertussis (whooping cough). What are the causative agents, and how do they contribute to the symptoms? Discuss the global incidence trends of pertussis.

Pertussis is characterized by a recurrent, violent cough that can last up to 6 weeks, with a whooping sound during inhalation. Bordetella pertussis causes the disease, producing pertussis exotoxin and endotoxin. Global incidence has decreased with increased DTP3 vaccination.

Compare the prevention strategies for diphtheria and pertussis. What vaccines are used, and how effective are they? Discuss the role of antibiotics in treating these diseases.

Diphtheria and pertussis can be prevented by vaccination. Diphtheria is prevented using a highly effective toxoid vaccine as part of DTP3 or DTaP. Pertussis is prevented with the DTP3 vaccine. Antibiotics, such as penicillin and erythromycin, are effective treatments, but immune response is crucial in both diseases.

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