Epidemiology and Public Health - Infectious disease Transmission and Reservoirs

14 important questions on Epidemiology and Public Health - Infectious disease Transmission and Reservoirs

How do pathogens spread through airborne droplets?

- Airborne droplets: Sneezes, coughing
- Examples: Influenza; measles; tuberculosis

What are examples of transmission through waterborne vehicles?

- Vehicle Waterborne: Sewage-contaminated water
- Examples: Cholera; giardiasis

How can diseases be transmitted through contaminated food?

- Vehicle Foodborne: Contaminated foods
- Examples: Staphylococcal food poisoning; salmonellosis
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What is a mode of transmission involving soil?

- Vehicle Soilborne: Puncture wound contaminated with soil
- Examples: Tetanus

How are diseases transmitted through soil aerosols or infected animals?

- Vehicle Airborne: Fungal spores
- Examples: Histoplasmosis; coccidioidomycosis

How do pathogens spread through vectors?

- Vector Arthropods/insects: Mites, ticks, mosquitoes
- Examples: Typhus; Lyme disease; malaria

What are the three steps involved in the transmission of infectious diseases?

- Escape from host
- Travel
- Entry into a new host

What are examples of infectious diseases that can be transmitted through direct person-to-person contact?

- Common cold
- Influenza
- Sexually transmitted diseases

How can infectious diseases be transmitted through vehicles?

- Fomites
- Vectors

What is a characteristic of the transmission of California encephalitis, in contrast to influenza?

- It coincides with the mosquito vector, showing an annual cyclic pattern

How are some pathogens able to reproduce inside vectors as alternative hosts?

- Some pathogens replicate inside vectors that act as alternative hosts

What is a chronic carrier of an infectious disease and examples of diseases where this can occur?

- Individuals who can carry the disease over extended periods or permanently
- E.g. Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis

Why can some infectious diseases be challenging to control in terms of onset of symptoms?

- Due to the variability in the onset of symptoms

What makes diseases with complex lifecycles challenging to control in terms of transmission?

- The need to navigate between human and non-human hosts

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