Molecular Information Flow and Protein Processing - DNA and Genetic Information Flow

12 important questions on Molecular Information Flow and Protein Processing - DNA and Genetic Information Flow

Genetic elements are large molecules composed of genes. What is the total complement of genetic elements?


Produced in transcription and carries a copy of the genetic blueprint


Whar is nucleic acids and proteins collectively called?

Informational macromolecules
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What is it called when one strand runs 5' to 3' (top to bottom) nd its complement runs from 5' to 3 (bottom to top)


Inserts and removes supercoils in the DNA


Results when the DNA is twisted about its axis in opposite sense from right handed double helix and is the form found in most cells.

Negative supercoiling

Inserts negative supercoils intro DNA of bacteria and archaea by making double-strand breaks

DNA gyrase

3 Main classes of RNA that participate in protein synthesis

Messenger RNA (mRNA)- single stranded molecules that carry the genetic information from DNA to the ribosome

Transfer RNA (tRNA) - help convert genetic info in the nucleotide sequence into a defined sequence of amino acids in proteins

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - catalytic and structural components of the ribosome.

3 stages of molecular procss of genetic info flow

  1. Replication - the DNA double helix is duplicated. Catalyzed by the enzyme DNA polymerase
  2. Transcription - transfer of genetic info from DNA to RNA. Catalyzed by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
  3. Translation - formation of polypeptide using the genetic information transferred to the mRNA by DNA is a process that occurs in the ribosome

Eukaryotes differe from bacteria and archaea in the first two steps of the central dogma. Where does replication and transcription occur for eukaryotes?


Why is the mRNA and other RNAS transported outside of the nucleus for translation in the eukaryotes?

Because ribosomes are not present in the nucleus

How does the translation and transcription in bacteria and archaea happen?

Through coupld transcription and translation

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