Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - DEltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria

10 important questions on Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - DEltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria

What four metabolic traits are most common in species of Deltaproteobacteria?

Sulfate reduction, sulfur oxidation, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, and iron reduction are common in Deltaproteobacteria.

What distinguishes Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria from Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria?

Deltaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria have fewer species and less functional diversity compared to Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria.

What are the primary metabolic activities of Deltaproteobacteria, and name a key genus associated with each activity?

Deltaproteobacteria are primarily sulfate/sulfur reducers (e.g., Desulfovibrio), dissimilative iron-reducers (e.g., Geobacter), and bacterial predators (e.g., Bdellovibrio).
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Describe the characteristics and habitat preferences of Desulfovibrionales within Deltaproteobacteria.

Desulfovibrionales are a group of bacteria within the Deltaproteobacteria class that are anaerobic and sulfate-reducing. They are commonly found in environments rich in organic matter like sediments, marshes, and sewage. Desulfovibrionales play a key role in the sulfur cycle by converting sulfate to hydrogen sulfide. They are rod-shaped bacteria with flagella for movement and are known for their ability to thrive in anaerobic conditions.

What is syntrophy, and how is it exemplified by Syntrophobacter wolinii in Deltaproteobacteria?

Syntrophy is a form of symbiosis where different organisms work together to degrade complex compounds. Syntrophobacter wolni is a bacterium in the Deltaproteobacteria phylum that participates in syntrophy by breaking down organic compounds into simpler molecules and producing hydrogen gas as a byproduct, which is then used by other microorganisms to continue the degradation process.

Name the key genera in Epsilonproteobacteria and their initial defining characteristics.

Helicobacter (polar flagella), Campylobacter (s-shaped), and Arcobacter (oxygen-tolerant) are key genera in Epsilonproteobacteria.
They are gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile spirilla, and often pathogenic to humans or animals

What diseases are caused by Campylobacter species, and what are the characteristics of these organisms?

Campylobacter species can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. These organisms are curved, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in animal feces and contaminated water. They are sensitive to environmental conditions, such as low temperatures, and are often transmitted through undercooked poultry or contaminated food and water sources.
They are gram-negative, microaerophilic, and must be cultured under low O2 and high CO2 conditions.

Describe the ecological roles of Epsilonproteobacteria in sulfur-rich environments and their association with hosts.

Epsilonproteobacteria are abundant in sulfur-rich environments, contributing to sulfur compound oxidation. They serve as ectosymbionts and endosymbionts for various animals, providing nutrition and detoxifying H2S.

Why is the ability of Epsilonproteobacteria to fix CO2 significant, and where are they particularly abundant in nature?

The ability of Epsilonproteobacteria to fix CO2 is significant because it helps contribute to carbon cycling in various environments. They are particularly abundant in deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where they play a crucial role in the ecosystem by oxidizing sulfur and fixing carbon from CO2. This process is important for overall nutrient cycling and primary production in these extreme environments.

How do Epsilonproteobacteria benefit animals living in sulfur-rich environments, and what roles do they play as symbionts?

Epsilonproteobacteria provide a source of nutrition and help detoxify H2S, which would be harmful to hosts. They serve as symbionts for animals like worms and shrimp, contributing to host well-being.

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