Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - Gammaproteobacteria: Enterobacterias

6 important questions on Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - Gammaproteobacteria: Enterobacterias

How many characterized species are found in the Gammaproteobacteria class, and which orders are well-characterized within this class?

The Gammaproteobacteria class comprises over 1500 characterized species, with at least 15 well-characterized orders, including Enterobacteriales.

What are the common features of Enterobacteriales, and which tests are used for their characterization?

Enterobacteriales are facultatively aerobic, gram-negative, nonsporulating rods, either nonmotile or motile by peritrichous flagella. Common assays for their characterization include the oxidase test and the catalase test.

Describe the fermentation patterns in enteric bacteria, focusing on the two major types.

Enteric bacteria exhibit two major fermentation patterns: mixed-acid fermentation, producing acetic, lactic, and succinic acids, and 2,3-butanediol fermentation, yielding smaller amounts of acids along with butanediol, ethanol, CO2, and H2.
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Which genera are classified as mixed-acid fermenters, and what are their characteristics?

Genera like Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Proteus are mixed-acid fermenters. Escherichia, for example, is found in the intestinal tract, plays a nutritional role, and can be pathogenic, causing diarrheal diseases.

Discuss the characteristics of butanediol fermenters, including examples of genera.

Butanediol fermenters, like Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Serratia, are genetically closer to each other than mixed-acid fermenters. For instance, Klebsiella pneumoniae, found in soil and water, can cause pneumonia and fix nitrogen.

What is unique about Serratia, and where can it be isolated?

Serratia produces red pyrrole-containing pigments called prodigiosins. Its exact function is unclear, and it can be isolated from water, soil, the gut of insects and vertebrates, and is occasionally found in human intestines. Serratia marcescens is a human pathogen.

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