Diagnosis Infectious Disease - Workflow in the clinical laboratory

7 important questions on Diagnosis Infectious Disease - Workflow in the clinical laboratory

What are the key strategies employed in clinical laboratories for identifying the causative agent of infectious diseases, and why is identification crucial?

Key strategies include specimen collection, pathogen cultivation, and microscopic observation. Identification is crucial because it leads to antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and the development of a specific treatment plan.

What is the workflow in the clinical laboratory for collecting specimens and detecting/culturing pathogens?

The workflow involves aseptic collection of patient specimens, using sterile swabs to obtain samples from infected areas, and inoculating suitable growth media. Pathogens can be detected through various diagnostic tests, and specific pathogens can be selectively grown and identified using specialized growth media and incubation conditions.

How are urinary tract infections (UTIs) diagnosed, and what are the common causative agents of UTIs?

UTIs are diagnosed by examining urine samples, and abnormal bacterial counts in urine can indicate a significant UTI. Common causative agents of UTIs include enteric bacteria, with Escherichia coli accounting for about 90% of cases.
  • Higher grades + faster learning
  • Never study anything twice
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Discover Study Smart

What are the standard procedures for obtaining blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens, and how are they processed in clinical laboratories?

Blood samples are aseptically drawn from a vein, injected into culture bottles containing growth media, and incubated aerobically and anaerobically. CSF specimens, obtained by lumbar puncture, are clear and sterile in healthy individuals. Turbidity and high leukocyte counts indicate infection. Both blood and CSF specimens are examined by Gram staining and inoculated into selective culture media.

How is Neisseria gonorrhoeae diagnosed in suspected cases, and what is the significance of culture techniques in confirming the diagnosis, especially in females?

The Gram stain of a urethral, vaginal, or cervical smear revealing gram-negative diplococci is diagnostic for gonorrhea. Culture techniques, especially in females, are significant as Gram stains may have lower sensitivity. Females may be examined using culture techniques to establish or confirm a diagnosis of gonorrhea.

What are some challenges associated with wound infections and abscesses, and what pathogens are commonly associated with these infections?

Wound infections and abscesses often harbor a variety of normal microbiota, making swab samples misleading. Pathogens commonly associated with wound infections include Staphylococcus aureus, enteric bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and anaerobes like Bacteroides and Clostridium.

How are MRSA infections diagnosed, and what are the challenges associated with treating these infections?

MRSA infections are diagnosed through culture-based techniques, including the use of chromogenic agar media, or nucleic acid-based tests. Treatment challenges arise due to the increasing resistance of MRSA strains to antibiotics. Clinical diagnosis is followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing to determine the best treatment strategy, often involving non-b-lactam antibiotics like vancomycin, tetracycline, or sulfa drugs.

The question on the page originate from the summary of the following study material:

  • A unique study and practice tool
  • Never study anything twice again
  • Get the grades you hope for
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.
Trustpilot Logo