Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Staphylococcus aureus infections

5 important questions on Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Staphylococcus aureus infections

Name two species of Staphylococcus relevant to human diseases. Which one is more commonly associated with human diseases, and why?

Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is more commonly associated with human diseases due to its production of potent virulence factors.

Explain the role of coagulase in Staphylococcus aureus infections. How does it contribute to the pathogenesis of these infections?

Coagulase is an enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin, forming a localized clot. This clotting makes it difficult for host immune cells to contact bacteria and initiate phagocytosis, contributing to the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections.

Describe the symptoms and causes of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with Staphylococcus aureus. How does TSS develop, and what is its fatal outcome?

TSS symptoms include fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and sometimes death. It results from the release of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, a superantigen causing a fatal inflammatory response. TSS develops due to staphylococcal infections, often triggered by surgery.
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What laboratory methods are used to diagnose Staphylococcus aureus infections? Explain the significance of mannitol–salt agar and PCR in the diagnosis process.

Diagnosis involves culture on mannitol–salt agar, where S. aureus ferments mannitol, changing the medium color. PCR is used for quicker identification of S. aureus genes. Mannitol–salt agar helps select for halotolerant staphylococci.

Discuss the challenges associated with the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. What preventive measures can be taken to limit MRSA transmission?

MRSA infections are challenging due to antibiotic resistance. Treatment involves clindamycin and tetracycline. Preventive measures include hygiene practices, identifying carriers, especially in healthcare settings, and following clinical microbiology safety practices.

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