Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Streptococcal syndromes

5 important questions on Person-to-Person Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Streptococcal syndromes

Differentiate between Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae in terms of growth characteristics and disease manifestations.

S. pyogenes typically grows in elongated chains and causes streptococcal pharyngitis, impetigo, and other infections. S. pneumoniae grows in pairs or short chains, causing invasive lung infections and pneumonia as secondary infections.

Explain the symptoms and consequences of streptococcal pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Why is rapid and accurate diagnosis crucial in treating severe sore throat cases?

Streptococcal pharyngitis presents with severe sore throat, enlarged tonsils, red spots on the soft palate, and other symptoms. Rapid diagnosis is crucial because untreated infections can lead to serious complications like scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

Discuss the role of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and scarlet fever. How do these exotoxins contribute to severe inflammation and tissue destruction?

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins are superantigens that activate large numbers of T cells, leading to the secretion of cytokines. This cascade results in severe inflammation, tissue destruction, and conditions like streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and scarlet fever.
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Explore the characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its role in causing invasive lung infections. What factors make encapsulated strains particularly virulent?

S. pneumoniae causes invasive lung infections, with encapsulated strains being highly virulent. The capsule resists phagocytosis, enabling the cells to invade the lower respiratory tract, leading to pneumonia and, in severe cases, bacteremia and infections in other organs.

Describe the available vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae. What are the recommended populations for these vaccines, and why is antibiotic resistance a concern in treating S. pneumoniae infections?

Vaccines like PREVNAR 13® target common strains of S. pneumoniae, recommended for adults aged 50 or older. Up to 30% of pathogenic isolates exhibit resistance to penicillin, and some strains resist erythromycin and cefotaxime, highlighting the concern of antibiotic resistance.

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