Microbial Symbioses with Humans - Disorders Attributed to the Gut Microbiota

14 important questions on Microbial Symbioses with Humans - Disorders Attributed to the Gut Microbiota

Describe the process of gut colonization in newborns and the succession of microbial populations leading to the establishment of a stable adult microbial community.

In newborns, the gut colonization process starts at birth and is influenced by factors like delivery mode, feeding method, and environmental exposures. Initially, bacteria like Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae dominate, gradually replaced by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in adults. Through interactions with the host immune system and diet, a stable adult microbial community is established over time.

How does the mode of birth (vaginal delivery vs. C-section) and early nutrition (breast milk vs. formula) influence the early assembly of the gut microbiome in infants?

Vaginally delivered infants have a microbiota similar to the mother, while C-section infants show significant differences. Breastfeeding promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria, while formula-fed infants may have elevated levels of potential pathogens.

Describe the dynamics of the infant gut microbiome in the first three years, highlighting the dominant bacterial group and the transitions observed during this period.

he infant gut is dominated by bifidobacteria, experiencing tremendous fluctuations in the first year, transitioning in the second year, and maturing to a stable adultlike composition by year three.
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Discuss the impact of breastfeeding on the infant gut microbiome, focusing on specific bacterial species influenced by breast milk components.

Breastfeeding is associated with the enrichment of fermentative bacteria like Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Breast milk components, such as human milk oligosaccharides, influence the microbial composition.

Explain how the gut microbiome transitions to a more adultlike composition, considering the role of solid foods and the specific genera that become prominent.

As babies start eating solid foods, the gut microbiome shifts towards a more adult-like composition. Specific genera such as Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and Bifidobacterium become more prominent during this transition. The introduction of a variety of foods plays a crucial role in shaping the diversity and stability of the gut microbiome, influencing its development towards a more mature state.

Explore the changes in the gut microbiome associated with aging, including alterations in bacterial proportions and the correlation between gut diversity and frailty.

Aging is linked to changes in the relative proportions of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, decreases in bifidobacteria and certain clostridial species, and a correlation between decreased diversity and frailty.

Which major body sites do microbes most heavily colonize?

Gut, skin, mouth, and respiratory tract are major body sites heavily colonized by microbes.

What methods have been used to assess the human microbiome?

Some common methods used to assess the human microbiome include DNA sequencing techniques like 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. Other methods such as qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are also used to quantify specific microbial species. Additionally, metabolomics and proteomics techniques are employed to analyze the metabolites and proteins produced by the microbiome for a deeper understanding of its functions.

Why might knowing out microbiome and how it functions be useful?

Knowing about our microbiome and how it functions can be useful because it plays a vital role in various aspects of health, including digestion, immune function, and even mental health. Understanding our microbiome can help in developing personalized treatments, improving overall well-being, and potentially identifying solutions for various health conditions.

What does it mean that humans are monogastric and omnivorus?

Humans have one stomach (monogastric) and can eat both plants and animals (omnivorous).

Describe Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that can infect the stomach lining and cause various digestive issues like gastritis and peptic ulcers. It is transmitted through contaminated food or water and can survive in the acidic environment of the stomach. H. pylori is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications.

The vast majority (~98 percent) of all human gut phylotypes fall into one of three major bacterial phyla, what are these?

The three major bacterial phyla are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria.

How does the general metabolism of microorganisms colonizing the small and large intestines differ and why?

Metabolism in small intestine prioritizes carbohydrate metabolism, while large intestine focuses on fermentation of complex carbohydrates.

What is an enterotype, and what data indicate that it is a stable feature of and individual?

Enterotype is a classification of gut microbiota based on composition. Stable microbial composition over time indicates individual-specific enterotype.

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