Waterborne and Foodborne Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Food Spoilage and Food Preservation

6 important questions on Waterborne and Foodborne Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Food Spoilage and Food Preservation

Explain the concept of food spoilage and categorize foods based on their water activity.

Categories: perishable, semiperishable, and nonperishable based on water activity.

Discuss the factors influencing food spoilage and the types of microorganisms responsible for food spoilage.

Food spoilage can be influenced by factors such as temperature, moisture, oxygen, pH levels, and hygiene practices during processing and storage. Different types of microorganisms responsible for food spoilage include bacteria, molds, and yeasts. These microorganisms break down the food components, leading to changes in texture, color, taste, and odor, ultimately rendering the food inedible.

Describe different methods of food preservation and their mechanisms.

Methods include altering temperature, acidity, or moisture; irradiation; adding chemicals; refrigeration, freezing, and heat treatment; canning; drying; and fermentation.
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Examine the role of ionizing radiation, especially electron beam technology, in food preservation.

Ionizing radiation, particularly electron beam technology, causes oxidation and deactivation of microbial cells, effectively reducing contamination without altering the food product.

How do fermented foods contribute to food preservation, and what are some examples of microbes involved in fermentation?

Fermented foods utilize metabolic activities of microorganisms to produce preservatives. Examples include lactic acid bacteria (in fermented milk), acetic acid bacteria (in pickling), propionic acid bacteria (in certain cheeses), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (alcohol production).

List some dairy, meat, beverage, and vegetable foods produced by microbial fermentation. What is the preservative in each case?

1. Yogurt (dairy) - Preservation: lactic acid
2. Salami (meat) - Preservation: nitrites
3. Kombucha (beverage) - Preservation: acetic acid
4. Kimchi (vegetable) - Preservation: lactic acid

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