Waterborne and Foodborne Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Typhoid FEver and Norovirus Ilness

8 important questions on Waterborne and Foodborne Bacterial and Viral Diseases - Typhoid FEver and Norovirus Ilness

Describe the transmission of Typhoid Fever and the regions where it is predominantly endemic.

Typhoid Fever is transmitted through fecal-contaminated water and is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Indonesia.

Explain the stages of Typhoid Fever progression and the potential complications.

Typhoid Fever progresses with ingested cells reaching the small intestine, leading to symptoms like fever, abdominal pain, and complications such as intestinal bleeding and septic shock.

Discuss the treatment for Typhoid Fever and the challenges associated with antibiotic therapy.

Treatment involves antibiotics, fluid replacement, and, in severe cases, surgery. Antibiotic resistance requires strain isolation and antibiotic sensitivity assessment.
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What characterizes Norovirus Illness, and what are its common transmission sources?

Norovirus Illness is caused by a single-stranded RNA virus, leading to symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea. Common transmission sources include contaminated water or food in crowded settings.

Examine the infectious dose of Norovirus and its potential impact on vulnerable individuals.

Norovirus has a very small infectious dose, and exposure to 10-20 virions can initiate disease. While rarely fatal, it can be life-threatening in vulnerable individuals due to dehydration.

Describe the diagnostic methods for Norovirus Illness.

Norovirus Illness is diagnosed through clinical observation, viral RNA detection by RT-PCR, or viral antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay in feces or vomit.

Contrast the causative agents of typhoid and norovirus gastrointestinal disease.

Typhoid is caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria, while norovirus is caused by the Norovirus virus.

What public health conditions allow for outbreaks of typhoid fever?

Poor sanitation, contaminated water, and crowded conditions can lead to outbreaks of typhoid fever.

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