Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - Gammaprotebacteria: Pseudomonadales and Vibrionales

8 important questions on Phylogenetic diversity of Bacteria - Gammaprotebacteria: Pseudomonadales and Vibrionales

Describe the characteristics of Pseudomonadales, especially related to metabolism and habitat.

Pseudomonadales are exclusively chemoorganotrophs with respiratory metabolisms. They are aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, and widely distributed in soil and aquatic systems.

Which species of Pseudomonas is frequently associated with human infections, and what makes it an opportunistic pathogen?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently associated with human infections. It is an opportunistic pathogen, initiating infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Explain the challenges in treating P. aeruginosa infections, including the factors contributing to its antibiotic resistance.

P. aeruginosa is naturally resistant to many antibiotics due to a resistance transfer plasmid (R plasmid). Biofilm growth further enhances antibiotic resistance. Polymyxin, despite its toxicity, is effective against P. aeruginosa in critical situations.
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How do certain species of Pseudomonas, like P. syringae, contribute to plant diseases, and how are they identified?

Pseudomonas syringae is a well-known plant pathogen, causing disease symptoms such as chlorotic lesions. Identification is often based on the observation of disease symptoms.

What characterizes the Vibrionales, and which key genera are discussed?

Vibrionales contain facultatively aerobic rods with fermentative metabolism. Key genera include Vibrio, Aliivibrio, and Photobacterium, with some species exhibiting bioluminescence.

Differentiate between Vibrio and enteric bacteria in terms of oxidase activity and fermentation.

Vibrio species are oxidase-positive and employ a fermentative metabolism, distinguishing them from enteric bacteria, which are oxidase-negative.

Provide information on Vibrio cholerae and its significance in human health.

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera in humans, one of the most common infectious diseases in developing countries, primarily transmitted via water.

Describe Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its role in causing gastroenteritis.

      • Vibrio parahaemolyticus inhabits marine environments and is a major cause of gastroenteritis, especially in regions where raw fish is consumed. Humans are accidental hosts.

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