Fundamentals of Business Process management - D: Advanced

16 important questions on Fundamentals of Business Process management - D: Advanced

How do activities start?

When the first activity completes, the second one starts immediatly.
BPMN Service Task: service provider is asumed to begin the function immediately upon invocation

How are activities completed?

Normal completion
- the thing that triggers the flow out of an activity
- a subprocess is completed when all its parallel paths have reached an end

Abnormal completion
- interruption of an activity or a subprocess by various exceptional conditions
- internal state of an activity is invisible to the model reader
- use events attached to boundary of task to model abnormal completion
- exception flow happens immediately, normal flow does not get executed.       

- events & gateways have no performers, these are control logic elements.
- These are assumed to execute immediately & instantaneously

What are BPMN subprocesses

- visualise end-to-end process
- enable top-down modelling
- clarify governance boundaries
- scope event handling
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What is a CALL activity?

= reusable or 'global' task, a subprocess
Drawn as subprocess with a thick border
'independent' subprocess

What is an BPMN Event sub-process

- process that can be started at any point in the global process
- is not part of the normal flow of its parent process, there are no incoming or outgoing sequence flows
- the sub process has a start event with a trigger. each time the start event is triggered while the parent process is active, then the event sub process will start. 
- can be interrupting or non interrupting

What are repetition activities?

Loop activity =  do.... While....
- same as an activity followed by a loop-back gateway

Multi-instance = for.....
- in parallel or sequential

What is a Multi-instance task?

Equivalent expanded representation of a multi-instance task

What is an advanced BPMN event?

Event - circle
- indication that something has happened
- they affect (start, pause, end) the flow of the process
- the process may send and receive events
3 types based on when they affect the flow
- start: indicates process start
- end: indicates where it ends
- intermediate: between start and end
+- 63 different types, zie formularium

What is a start event?

Symbol = thin circle
Indicates where the process starts
usually just one, but not required
Can be non-interrupting for event sub-process

Trigger = what causes the event
- any = unspecified
- message = external signal directed to this specific process
- timer = scheduled process
- conditional = watched data condition
- signal = external signal broadcasted to any listener
- multiple = any of above

How are start events properly set up?

One start event is good practice

If no start event
- any activity, intermediate event or gatewat with no incoming arrow is enabled and can start
= implicit start event + implicit parallel gateway  

More than one start even can be used for channel dependent starts

What does a terminate event do?

Terminated process level, even if parallel paths are still active

How does an intermediate event work in BPMN?

Semantics depend on the placement, border style and the content of the event in the diagram

- in sequence flow
- boundary = attached to an activity

Boundary Event border style
- full = interrupting
- dashed = non-interrupting

Filled or empty symbol
- filled = throwing
- empty = catching
all boundary events are of catching type

How are intermediate events used

Sequence flow
throwing = process generates the trigger signal
catching = process waits for the trigger signal and then proceeds 

Interrupting: attached to an activity 
- if event doesnt occur then follow normal flow
- the activity defines the scope of the event 

Non interrupting: attached to an activity
- on occourence of the event, follow the exception flow
- in any case follow normal flow
- the activity defines the scope of the event

How do throwing and catching work?

Message throw-catch only works between pools

Error and cancel throw-catch only end from an end-event of a subprocess to the boundary of that subprocess

Escalation throw-catch can be thrown as intermediate event or as end event to the boundary of the same subprocess  

- immediately ends process level
- propagates error to parent level
- result is caught by intermediate event attached to boundary

- similar, also non-interrupting

- similar, interrupting
- only used in transactions

Signal can communicate within a pool and across pools

What modelling alternatives are there?

Refund expenses
- terminate events
- boundary events
- event sub-processes

Simiar constructs to model nearly do the same thing
- decision and rules
- sending and receiving messages
- automated tasks

How are decisions and rules set up?

Processes & Rules are complementary
No clear guidelines on how to combine the two paradigms together however
Little support for rules in BPMN
Business rules should be defined independently of the process in which they are used

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