Fundamentals of Business Process management - C: Basics

18 important questions on Fundamentals of Business Process management - C: Basics

What is the primary goal of PMN?

To provide a standard notation readily understandable by all business stakeholders
- business analysts
- technical developers
- business managers

Its a common XML language which bridges the communication gap between business process design and implementation

What is BPMN's method and style?

BPMN is a notation
- a standardized set of symbols with semantics and rules on how to combine symbols

- a 'how to' set of guidelines

- the art of modelling, a combination of best practices, experiences and consistent application of some principles

What is Bruce Silver's BPMN method?

Level 1: High level BPMN
- limited set of symbols
- hierarchical, top-down modelling
- focus on understanding and handeling real-world processes
- focus: business

Level 2: Analytical BPMN
- full palette of symbols, incorporates events, exception handling
- emphasises consistency and technical meaning of shapes
- focus: shared meanign between Business & IT

Level 3: executable BPMN
XML language underneath BPMN
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Which submodels are there within an end-to-end BPMN model?

- non executable Business Processes
- Executable Business Processes
- Public processes

- focus on the exchange of messages between participants

- represent interactions between two or more processes

What are the basic concepts within BPMN

- somethign that 'happens' during the process
- can affect the flow of the process
- usually have a trigger or a result
- can start, interrupt, or end the flow

- work that is performed within a business process
- can be atomic or non atomic

Sequence flow
- used to show the order in which the process activities will be performed

Message flow
- used to show the flow of messages between two entities that are prepared to send and receive them

- used to control how sequence flows interact as they converge and diverge within a process

What are the BPMN basic symbols and their meaning?


What are the BPMN token semantics?

A process model represents a set of processes that all will be executed according to the model
A process instance represents a single occurrence of a process

- it can be represented as a token
- colours can be used to distinguish different process instances
- the start event creates tokens

What does the XOR split do?

2 or more alternative outgoing paths
Only 1 outgoing path is chosen
based on data known to the process (conditions)
default flow means 'otherwise' = if all other conditions evaluate to false

How does the inclusive OR split work?

OR gateway with 'O' inside signifies inclusive OR
1 or more outgoing paths are chosen
requires a condition on each of its outgoing branches
tested based on data known to the process

How does the AND (parallel) split work?

2 or more outgoing paths
All parallel paths are followed
- token is split in as many tokens
Same meaning as multiple outgoing paths of an activity

What does the merging paths: XOR join do?

Merging exclusive alternative paths
- XOR join behaves as a multi-merge or 'pass through': triggered once for each incoming token

Same meaning as merging without gateway

What does the merging paths: AND join do?

Waits for a token on each incoming path
AND gateway join enforces synchronisation

What does the merging paths: inclusive OR join do?

Conditional multi-merge: join some, not all
- behaves like an and, but only waits for active paths

What is good practice in modelling style?

- avoid implicit gateways: gateways should come in split-merge pairs of equal types
- avoid combining split and merge in a single gateway

How do pools function?

A pool represents a participant in the process, or a business process

Well-defined semantics in BPMN
- the pool is a container for the sequence flow between activities
- sequence flow is not allowed to cross the boundary of a pool

How do lanes function?

Pools may be subdivided into lanes

Can be nested
- company -> departments -> roles
- lane set applies to a specific process level
- you can replicate lane set in parent and child level diagrams

How do messages function?

Use messages to communicate across pools
- is represented as a dashed arrow

Which BPMN information artifacts are there?

Data Objects: local variable
are a mechanism to show how data is required (input for) or produced (output by) by activites

Data Stores: persistent data
Are containers of data objects that need to be persisted beyond the duration of a process instance

are used to link artifacts such as data objects and data stores with flow objects

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