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Summary: Care And Our Relation To The World Of Concern

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  • What are the critiques on philosophical and social science about their feminist framework in ethics?

    1. Their biases on masculine features which prevent understanding ordinary lives and the place of of care within them, particular the moral experience of women.
    2. The morality of man as patriarchal in his rol towards women is seen as universal.
  • Why is our relation to the world one of concern?

    1. Because we are psychically vulnerable and dependent on others;
    2. Because of contingency, we are necessary evaluative beings - continually having to monitor and evaluate how we and the things we care about are faring, and decide what to do.
  • Explain several reasons for de deficiencies about the current science about feminist / care ethics.

    1. The persistence of a set of interrelated conceptual distinctions related to the fact value distinctions: Dichotomised views of fact-values is an ought, reason and emotion, mind and body are especially obstructive;

    2. There is seen a tendency for academics to project features of their own contemplative relation to the world onto those they study;
    3. There is often an inadequately understanding of social being and embodiment, of the relations between biological and the cultural, or more specifically between body, brain, mind and environment.
  • Where do these tendencies lead to?

    They lead us to a pervasive anti-naturalisme, which is reluctant to acknowledge our universal neediness and vulnerability, and a kind of rationalism that marginalizes anything that cannot be reduced to or controlled by reasoning and discourse - so to say; we are left with a heritage in cartesian residues....
  • Formulate 2 kind of approaches to ethics

    1. Synchronic approach of ethics is an approach ethisch don't take the historical process in account in describing the current ethical situation and its theory. It considers at a moment in time without taking history into account.

    2. Diachronic approach of ethics is an approach which is a form of analysis that seeks to describe and explain processes of continuity and change over time.
  • What are the misleadings of dichotomies when they are used as opposites?

    1. The middle terms are overlooked, such as emotional reason, or the objectivity (reality) of subjectivity, but also:
    2. Each side of the dichotomies has its own internal differentiations.
  • What are the dangerous tendencies of dualistic points of view?

    Dualism tend to be gendered (masculine-left, feminine-right)such as thought and feeling, public and private, nature and culture.
  • What is the threatening and the challenge of fact-value discussion?

    The conservatives who want to minimise the role of values in order to protect objectivity and;
    The radicals - in opposing them - acknowledge the unavoidability of values, but assume that this means abandoning objectivity. Both sides fail to realize that it is possible for evaluative judgements to be true. There is a slide between two distinct and contingently related meanings of 'objective'; the first referring to 'value-freedom - the second referring to statements that are 'true'.
  • What is the distinct meaning of having values?

    Having values and evaluating things as good or bad in various ways does not necessarily prevent one achieving an objective understanding of some social phenomenon. More 'valuey' descriptions may be factually more accurate than more neutral ones.
    Example: to say that millions were systematically exterminated in the Holocaust is factually more adequate than to say merely that millions died in the Holocaust.
  • What's the difference between thin ethical terms and thick?

    Thin ethical terms are about bad or good, black or white, flourishing or suffering, and not further qualified.
    Thick ethical terms are more descriptive and evaluative and therefor more informative too; like kindness, respect, courage, abuse, humiliation or racism, which are kinds of internal differentiations from one side of the dichotomy. 
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