QoS - Congestion Management and Avoidance

5 important questions on QoS - Congestion Management and Avoidance

What is the Layer 1 hardware queue present on a physical interface known as?

It is known as the Transmit Ring (Tx-ring or TxQ)

What are two reasons congestion can occur?

1. The input interface is faster than the output interface.
2. The  output interface receives traffic from multiple input interfaces.

What are the 6 legacy queuing algorithms that predate the MQC architecture?

1. First in, First Out (FIFO)
2. Round Robin
3. Weighted Round Robin (WRR)
4. Custom Queuing. Cisco implementation of WRR
5. Priority Queuing (PQ)
6. Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
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Which 2 queuing algorithms are current, supported by MQC and and recommended for rich-media networks?

1. Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ)
Enables creation of up to 256 queues, serving up to 256 traffic classes. Suited for non-real-time data traffic

2. Low-latency Queuing (LLQ)
LLQ is CBWFQ combined with Priority Queuing (PQ).

What is congestion avoidance and how is it implemented by Cisco?

Congestion Avoidance is the act dropping packets so the queue doesnt overspill.
The default way is to drop all packets when the queue is full, however this can create TCP Global Synchronization.
A better way is RED Random Early Detection, it provides congestion avoidance by randomly dropping packets by monitoring buffer depth.
Cisco uses Weighted RED where the randomness of packet drops can be manipulated by traffic weights denoted either by IPP or DSCP.
WRED can also be used to set the IP Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) bit.

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