Wireless Infrastructure

5 important questions on Wireless Infrastructure

Which 2 modes can Cisco APs operate in?

1. Autonomous (Self sufficient and standalone)
2. Lightweight (Dependant on a Wireless Lan Controller WLC)

What three Wireless Network Topologies can be created with Lightweight AP mode and Wireless Lan Controllers?

1. Centralized or Unified Wireless Network Topology
One WLC is placed in the core of the network and all APs connect to it.

2. Embedded Wireless Network Topology
WLCs are embedded into Access Switches. Reducing the CAPWAP tunnel length. Can be useful for Branche locations. Typically supports up to 200 APs

3. Mobility Express Wireless Network Topology
WLCs are embedded in the Access Points itself. One access point in a given location can run the WLC, while all other APs connect to it. Supports up to 100 Access Points.

Lightweight APs run the same software version as the Wireless Lan Controller (WLC). How can the APs be effectively updated to a new version without the need to let them all download the new version from the WLC in a short maintenance window?

A new version can be downloaded to a WLC without rebooting it. APs then have the option to download the new version. The new version will become active on the WLC when it is rebooted, which can be done after all APs already downloaded the new version.
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In step 2 of the pairing process, a lightweight AP has 5 options for discovering WLCs. Which 5 options?

1. Broadcast CAPWAP Discovery Request. WLCs on same subnet answer with CAPWAP Discovery Response.
(Broadcast Request can be forwarded by a router, it uses UDP 5246.)
2. An AP can be 'primed' with up to 3 controllers, or if already connected previously it stored up to 8 controllers from the possible controller list. Stored in NV-RAM.
3. Could receive list of WLC addresses from DHCP server using Option 43
4. AP attempts to resolve the name CISCO-CAPWAP-CONTROLLER.local-domain (Where local-domain is domain learned form DHCP)
5. If none succesfull AP reboots and restarts the process.

After discovering the WLCs an AP should have a list of live candidate controllers. How does it select which one to join?

Step 1. If it has previously joined a WLC and has been configured or primed with a primary, secondary and tertiary controller it tries to join those controllers in succession.

Step 2. The master controller on the network responds to the APs request.

Step 3. AP Tries to join the least-loaded WLC.

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