# Axial Load and Bending Resistance of Columns

## 9 important questions on Axial Load and Bending Resistance of Columns

### When the normal stress due to combined axial load and bending moment vary linearly and area determined by superposition of the axial and bending stresses calculated separately, the reference for the bending moment must be the centroid axis of the member. Explain why.

### When the normal stresses due to combined axial load and bending moment in a reinforced concrete structure are determined using a nonlinear solution, the reference axis for the bending moment can be taken about any reference axis except the neutral axis. Explain why.

### What is the influence of axial compression on the flexural resistance of an under-reinforced flexural member?

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### What is the influence of axial tension on the flexural resistance of a concrete member?

### At what strain does the maximum flexural resistance of a concrete member occur?

### What additional bending moment must be accounted for in long columns?

### What factors influence maximum slenderness of a long column that is permitted without account for second order moments?

- Ratio of applied compressive force to resistance

- Slenderness is influenced by: radius of gyration, end supports and effective length

### What is the difference between a short column and a long column

### What defines a buckling failure

- Stability issue

- Member is not stiff enough to resist an amplified moment

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