Summary: Development Of Personal Relationships

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  • 1 Early Social Life

  • 1.1 Classical Theories

  • How do the classical developmental theories look at peer relations?

    • Infants are not capable of true social interaction
    • Later relationships are derived from relationships with primary caregivers
    • Peers start to matter later in development
  • What are a few examples of classical developmental theories?

    • Psychoanalytic theory
    • Evolutionary theory
    • Attachment theory
    • Social learning theory
    • Cognitive developmental theory
    • Behavioral genetic theories
  • 1.2 Modern Theories

    This is a preview. There are 12 more flashcards available for chapter 1.2
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  • What is sharing and how does the ability to share evolve?

    12 M.O.: affiliative sharing
    • Focus of non-sharing

    18 M.O.: share when it is requested
    • Understanding of ownership

    24 M.O.:
    • Children share spontaneously
    • Children start to reciprocate sharing
    • Sharing is predicted by sensitivity to distress
    • But: non-sharing is very frequent as well

    48 M.O.: sharing increases even further and is related to the theory Of mind.
  • What is joint attention?

    The ability to coordinate attention with another person. This starts at 6 months, but there are individual differences.
  • What is inhibitory control?

    The underlying skill of developing what personal space is, so that they don't adhere to their impulses to explore peers as they would explore objects.
  • How does language link to peer relations?

    Verbal ability is related to higher prosociality and lower aggression. Conversations become important, think of pretend play for example.
  • What is cooperating and how does the ability to cooperate evolve?

    1 y.o. can already cooperate.
    After 2 years of age, cooperation becomes more complex
    • This is related to language development
    • Monitoring of the partner, talking with the partner etc
  • What is conflict and how does the development of conflict evolve?

    Conflict is functional for skill development.
    1 y.o.: conflict over toys which is resolves by physical force
    2 y.o.: also use verbal means
    • Kids avoid conflict, especially hard hits
    • Retaliation (=wraak) in conflict occurs

    Gender differences start around age 3 (due to socialization)
    • After this girls change their behaviour to the norms (for example don’t use as much physical touch)
    • Whatever is perceived as normal in a group will occur more in that group (for example: where bullying is more common more kids will bully)

    Later in life the subject of conflict changes.
  • What sources influence the peer relations of a child?

    • Parents
      • Mother-infant relationship, father-infant relationship, parental relationship
    • Siblings
    • Other caregivers
    • Genes
    • Sex differences
    • Temperamental differences
  • 2 Changes in Social Networks across the Lifespan

  • 2.1 Social Network Changes

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  • What are social networks?

    The set of people with whom an individual is directly involved. There is a social relationship and there are repeated social interactions.

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