Summary: International Brand Management

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  • 1 Artikel 1 - Keller (1993): Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity

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  • From wich perspective is brand equity conceptualised?

    From the perspective of the individual consumer
  • How is brand equity defined?

    The marketing effects uniquely attributable to the brand
  • When is a brand said to have positive customer-based brand equity? And when negative?

    • Positive: When consumers react more favourably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand then they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. 
    • Negative: When the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favourable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory.
  • What are the two motivations for studying brand equity?

    1. Financially based motivation: Estimate the value of a brand more precisely
    2. Strategy-based motivation: Improve marketing productivity. Firms seek to increase the efficiency of their marketing expenses
  • What are brand identities?

    Brand identities are individual brand components (e.g. name, symbol) that is intended to identify
    the goods or services and differentiate the seller from the competitors.
    • The totality of these identities are called “the brand”.
  • What is meant by congruence of brand assocations?

    The extent to which a brand association shares content and meaning with another brand association
  • Which 2 things shoud the congruence of brand associatons affect?

    1. How easily existing associations can be recalled
    2. How easily additional associations can become linked to the brand node in memory.
  • Choosing to emphasise the company on a particular person, place, or event, should be based on what?

    Based on consumersawareness of that entity, as well as how the beliefs and attitudes about the entity can become linked to the brand
  • By which other sources of influence are beliefs about the brand created?

    • Reference groups or publicity
    • Direct experience with the brand itself
    • Inferences (conclusies) from existing brand associations
  • What are the two ways of measuring customer-based brand equity? And what do they entail?

    • Indirect approach: Assess potential sources of customer-based brand equity by measuring brand knowledge
    • Direct approach: Assess the impact of brand knowledge on consumer response to different elements of the firm’s marketing program

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