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Summary: Origins And Development Of Authoritarian And Single Party States | 9780521189347 | Allan Todd, et al

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Origins and development of authoritarian and single party states | 9780521189347 | by Allan Todd, Sally Waller.

  • 4 Mao and China

  • 4.2 Ideology and Nature of the state?

    This is a preview. There are 1 more flashcards available for chapter 4.2
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  • What were the main tenets of Maoist thought that he added to traditional Marxist beliefs?

    1. Emphasis on the peasants
    2. two-stage revolution
    3. mass mobilisation
    4. voluntaryism
    5. continuous revolution
    6. self-crticism and rectification
    7. ruthless determination
  • What was the general impact of Mao's ideology on China?

    It worked as a destructive thought when put into practise; and often worked against his ideals of strengthening China and improving the lives of the Chinese peopel 
  • 4.2.1 What were the origins of Mao Zedong thought?

  • What part of Mao's background might have influenced his pro-Peasant outlook in his ideology?

    1893: Mao was born into a middle-ranking peasant family:
    1. Knew hardship
    2. humiliation of foreign influence
    3. prevailing disillusionment with the government 
  • What aspect of Mao's teenage years might have influenced his emphasis on continuous revolution within the PRC?

    1911: experienced life as volunteer soldier in the 1911 revolution; then was bitterly disappointed when warlords took over 
  • What were the foreign influences in Mao's life and how did this influence his ideology?

    1913: Met Yang Changji:
    • Changji spent 6 years in Japan and 4 in Britain; and rejected Confucianism
    • Contributed to Hsin Ch'ing-nien (New Youth) which spread 'Western Ideas'
    • Introduced Mao to Yan Fu, a scholar who advocated need for strong leadership to bring change to China
    • Wang Fuzhi, who believed that 'there is not a single part of human nature already shaped that cannot be modified' 


    Read a Lot of Western Literature:
    1. Montesquieu
    2. Adam Smith
    3. Charles Darwin
    4. J.S. Mill
    5. Herbert Spencer

    Convinced solution to China would need to be military
  • Before 1918 what was the state of Mao's ideology?

    "My mind was a curious mixture of ideas of liberalism, democratic reformis and Utopian socialism"
  • What was the impact of Mao's time in Beijing?

    1919: Moved to Beijing University; worked under librarian Li Dazhao:
    1. Beijing University became a focus for Marxist studies
    2. Li Dazhou published an article on "The Victory for Bolshevism" in New Youth
    3. Li Dazhao encouraged Marxist discussion in his room, know as the 'Red Chamber'


    Here, Mao developed his belief that masses would be a source of energy that could transform China
  • What were Mao's interactions with Communism in the early 1920s?

    • 1919: Pursued Marxist studies in Beijing, later in Shanghai
    • Shanghai: read Communist Manifesto and discussions with prominent communist Chen Duxiu
    • 1920: Mao formed communist group in Changsha
    • July 1921: Mao attended first CCP Congress
    • 1923: Joined Central Committee
  • What was the main difference between Mao and the mainstream communist group in China?

    Mainstream group attributed little importance to Chinese Peasantry, for example:
    • 1923: "The peasants are widely scattered, therefore it is not easy to organise them into an effective force" - Chen Duxiu

    In contrast, Mao saw revolution in numerically strong peasants, for example
    • 1924: mao worked in newly created GMD Peasant Movement Training Institute 
  • 4.2.2 What were the key elements of Mao Zedong thought?

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  • What were Mao's orthodox Marxist beliefs?


    Marxist Revolution:
    1. Progress would come through CLASS STRUGGLE where landowners and bourgeoisie had to overthrown
    2. Lead to 'dictatorship of the proletariat' 
    3. Collective ownership of means of production
    4. Socialist states should promote worldwide communist revolution
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