Summary: Parasitology

Study material generic cover image
  • This + 400k other summaries
  • A unique study and practice tool
  • Never study anything twice again
  • Get the grades you hope for
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Use this summary
Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.
Trustpilot Logo

Read the summary and the most important questions on Parasitology

  • 1 Lectures

  • 1.1 Introduction

    This is a preview. There are 4 more flashcards available for chapter 1.1
    Show more cards here

  • What are facultative and obligate hosts?

    Fucultative is when the parasite may exist in an free living stage, ibligate is when the parasite cannot survive without its host.
  • 1.2 Diagnostic challenges

    This is a preview. There are 4 more flashcards available for chapter 1.2
    Show more cards here

  • How do protozoa replicate?

    Through schizogony/sporogony or binary fission
  • What does ASSURED stand for?

    Affordaple, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid&robust, equipment free, deliverable
  • What are limitations of ASSURED?

    It is focused on test& treat and remote areas, but in other settings other requirements may be as important (eg reproducibitity for research, counting for helminths, large throughput)
  • What are cons of microscopy?

    Less sensitive (3 samples of 3 days), species distinction may be difficult, time consuming, requires training, observer dependent, multiple procedures with one sample
  • How can entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium parvum be diagnosed? And what are the pro's and cons?

    1. Microscopy
    Pro: available, affordable, mostly specific
    Con: more samples, staining procedures

    2. Antibody detection
    Pro: fast, sensitive
    Con: invasive

    3. Antigen detection (like pregnancy test)
    Pro: fast, sensitive, less training required, reproducible
    Con: Only crypto+giardia, relatively expensive, miss other parasites

    4. PCR, NAAT
    Pro: fast, sensitive, specific, multiplex, high throughput, quality control options, reproducible
    Con: need molecular set-up laboratory
  • How can malaria be diagnosed and what are pros and cons?

    1. Microscopy (thick smear with lysed blood, thin smear with fixed and stained blood)
    + Sensitive (thick), species differentiation (thin), quantification, fast

    - detection limit, observer&procedure dependent, not fast enough, labourous

    2. Antibody detection (serology)
    - it takes time to develop antibodies so you might be dead

    3. Antigen detection (RDT's used in many areas, fingerprick stick)
    + fast, species differentiation for vivax and falciparum, no training, sensitive when high parasite loed, widely available, inexpensive
    - less sensitive for non-falciparum, no counting, deletions in target antigen reported

    4 PCR
    + sensitive, specific, quantify, large throughput
    - costly, not so fast, availability (now changing)
  • How is schistosoma diagnosed and what are pros and cons?

    1. Microscopy (reference test, look at eggs as other half stuck in tissue, kato-kats to look at intensity eggs per mg/ml)
    + specific, quantification, available, affordable
    - low sensitivity, fluctuation of egg secretion

    2. Serology/antibodies (chronic so you stay positive)
    + specific, sensitive, no cross-reactivity with other helminths
    - no intensity of infection, not for evaluation of treatment

    3. Antigen detection 
    + non-invasive
    - POC-CCA only mansoni and 20 mins reading, UCP-LF CAA laboratory based
  • What are 3 requirements for a new diagnostic tool for schistosoma?

    1. Highly field applicable and user friendly
    2. Highly sensitive: case detection for monitoring intervention
    3. Detecting active infection (worm load)
  • What are CCA and CAA?

    These are circulating antigens excreted from the parasite gut. They can be found in blood and urine and they are unique for schistosoma.

To read further, please click:

Read the full summary
This summary +380.000 other summaries A unique study tool A rehearsal system for this summary Studycoaching with videos
  • Higher grades + faster learning
  • Never study anything twice
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Discover Study Smart