Summary: Pathology

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  • Lecture 1 - Ch2: Cell injury, cell death and adaptations

    This is a preview. There are 74 more flashcards available for chapter 02/02/2021
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  • What is the difference between etiology and pathogenesis?

    Etiology: the cause of the development of disease, 'initial damage' (V.cholerae)
    Pathogenesis: the development of a disease, 'further damage' (cholera-diarrhea)
  • What are the consequence of damage?

    1. It can be reversible
    2. Lead to adaption
    3. Lead to death of the cell 
  • What happens with myocardial hypertrophy?

    1. Mechanical stretch. Induction of embryonic genes. It increases the mechanical performance and decreases the work load. 
    2. Agonist. It increases the synthesis of contractile proteins and thereby increase the mechanical performance.
    3. Growth factors.  It increase the production of growth factors. 
  • What happens where there is oxygen shortage?

    The cell swells because of failure of Na/K ATPase
  • Which form of cell death is anti-inflammatory?

  • Triggers extrinsic apoptosis-induction

    A lethal signal from outside the cell (FasL, TNF) triggers through receptor activation a cascade that leads to apoptosis.
  • Describe the extrinsic apoptosis pathway

    1. Ligand binds
    2. Adaptor proteins bind via death domain and recruit and activate caspase-8
  • Triggers mitochondrial (intrinsic) pathway of apoptosis-induction

    • Lack of survival signals
    • Damage
    • Stress of cell 
  • Describe intrinsic pathway

    1. BH3 sensors the triggers
    2. It inactivates the Bcl-2 family 
    3. Activation of BAX/BAK channels
    4. Cytochrome C and other pro-apoptotic proteins leak out the mitochondria
    5. They activate caspase 9 
    6. Apoptosis 
  • What is the cause of follicular lymphoma?

    Loss op apoptosis-response by overexepression of BCL2-gen

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