Reading and mathematics in developmental psychology

39 important questions on Reading and mathematics in developmental psychology

How do we call a writing system to describe an aspect of writing, or spelling?


How do we call a writing system in which written symbols correspond to spoken sounds?

an alphabetic script

What is a similarity of Vygotsky's theory and Piaget's theory and what is a difference between them?

Vygotsky and Piaget are both constructivists, which means that they both believe the child is active in its own development. A big difference is that Piaget believes that understanding comes from interaction with the environment, Vygotsky believes that understanding is the individuals invention.
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How do we call a language that relies heavily on syllables for meaning?

a syllabary language

How do we call a rhythmic unit in a language like japanese or tamil that is the equivalent of a syllable?

a mora

What is a syllable?

In Dutch: lettergreep. Pronouncing it forms a rhythmic break.

How do we call the smallest unit of a word whose pronunciation forms a rhythmic break when spoken?

a syllable

What is the difficulty of the alphabet and phonemes for children?

They can't realize that letters are linked to certain phonemes. This is proven by Bruce's study where children couldn't understand what a word would sound like if one phoneme was removed.

How do we call the ability to detect and manipulate sounds at the phonetic, syllabic and intra-syllabic levels?

phonological skills

What was a problem when people started producing the alphabet?

It was difficult to isolate the phoneme as a usable phonological unit.

How do we call a unit of speech that is smaller than a syllable, but larger than a phoneme?

an intrasyllabic unit

What was proven in the study of Morais (1979, 1986) where Portugese adults had to do the deletion task?

Awareness of phonemes is the product of learning how to read.

How do we call the consonant, or cluster of consonants or vowel at the beginning of a syllable?

the onset

What are phonological skills?

When you are able to detect and manipulate phonemes, onsets, rimes and syllables.

What are onsets and rimes and to which unit do they belong?

Onsets are the beginning of syllables, rimes are the vowel sounds of a syllable plus any consonants that follow. They both are intrasyllabic units.

How do we call rules that determine that a letter, or group of letters represent one sound in a specific setting, and another sound in a different context

conditional spelling rules.

What does the relationship between phoneme awareness and rhyme indicate?

It suggests that reading is not the only influence on awareness of phonemes but also comes from earlier experience with onset and rime.

How do we call a non-existing, but pronuncable word?

a pseudo-word

How do we call it when an orthography has spelling rules based on phonemes and also on morphemes and the way these are spelled?

the orthography is morpho-phonemic

Why was Reads study on invented spelling revolutionary?

Because it showed that inexperienced children use their own knowledge on letter-sound relationships in creative ways. It also showed that there are some stubborn weaknesses, like the confusion between the letter names and letter sounds.

How do we call morphemes that create new words by being added to the end?

affixes, or derivational morphemes

What is an orthography like English instead of just a phonemic script?

It's morph-phonemic, because its spelling rules are not just based on phonemes but also on morphemes in the way they are spelled.

What are derivational morphemes?

Affixes that create new words when added.

How do we call affixes whose presence or absence tells you important information about a word?

inflectional morphemes

What are inflectional morphemes?

Affixes that provide essential information about the word if they're present or absent.

How do we call the principle that a set of items is quantitively equal to a set of different items with the same amount?


What are the three steps in learning morphemic spelling rules?

1. Learning a particular sound
2. Learning another way of spelling this sound, at first using it without understanding when you should use it
3. Learning the rule for the use of the sound because of feedback

How do we call the principle that numbers come in an ordered scale of magnitude, 1 is smaller than 2, 2 is smaller than 3, etc?


What does lack of phonemic awareness play an important role in?


How do we call a set of principles that must be obeyed in order for our number systems to work?

universal counting principles

How do we call the principle that states when counting a set of object one object needs to only be counted once?

one-to-one principle

How do we call the principle that number words must be used only in one specific set order?

stable order principle

How do we call the principle that the last number of the counting sequence represents the quantity of the counted set of items?

last-number-counted principle

How do we call the principle that the number of items in a set is independent of the qualities of the items in a set?

the abstraction principle

How do we call the principle that the order of counting the items in a set does not affect the number of items in the set?

the order irrelevance principle

How do we call routines or procedures applied to solve a problem?

procedural skills

Why is reading difficult for children?

phonemic awareness is not innate and not present in 5 or 6 year olds

How is phonemic awareness illustrated?

children are asked what a word would sound like without the first letter, unable to do this

Describe McCrinck and Wynne's experiment on addition and subtraction?

  • addition; five objects drop in the screen, small screen rises to cover them
  • 5 extra objects come in from the side to go behind the screen as well
  • screen lifts up to reveal either 5 or 10 objects
  • substraction; 10 objects drop down, screen rises to cover
  • 5 objects come from behind the screen, go off screen
  • screen lifts up to reveal either 5 or 10 objects
  • surpise, and looking time at impossible events shows ability to count

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