Baroque Age - Baroque Outside Italy - Philosophy

3 important questions on Baroque Age - Baroque Outside Italy - Philosophy

Who was René Descartes?

  • René Descartes (1595-1650) was a French philosopher.
  • Called the Father of Modern Philosophy.
  • Stated that the only certainty in life is that you exist as a doubting entity (Cogito, ergo sum).
  • Explained God's existence, by our imperfect minds (that can't even trust our perceptions), that are still able to imagine a perfect God.
    • If God din't exist, then he would be unimaginable.

Who was Thomas Hobbes?

  • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was an English philosopher.
  • In his book Leviathan (1651) he defended monarchical rule.
    • Humans are driven by a primal fear of death and the desire for power.
    • Without government humankind simply self-destructs.
  • Invented the 'social contract', where people choose to give up sovereignty, in return for a ruler to keep the peace.
  • Opposed the idea of the divine right of kings.

Who was John Locke?

  • John Locke (1632-1704), was an English philosopher.
  • Argued at birth our mind is a 'tabula rasa' (blank slate) and has to be filled by observations and reason (two great fountains of knowledge).
  • People accept government because they find it convenient, not because of an innate inclination to submission to authority.
  • Locke's Two Treatises on Government (1690) were instrumental for inspiring both the American and French revolution.

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