Summary: Food Related Allergies And Intolerances

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  • 1 Immunological aspects

  • 1.1 Lecture 1: General aspects of the immune system

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  • What does a natural killer cell (NK) do?

    It binds to a tumour, releases toxics and then gets out the way.
  • What does TLR stand for?

    Toll-like receptor
  • Is TGF-beta pro-inflammatory or an anti-inflammatory cytokine?

  • To which does a Helper T cell belong to? Innate or adaptive immunity?

  • By what is the cytokine IL-10 produced?

  • What can be done with immunotherapy, when the Treg are not functioning properly?

    Boost the IL-10
  • What are 4 differences between primary and secondary response?

    1. Primary response: 10-14 days, Secondary response 5-7 days (faster)
    2. Secondary response 100x higher than primary, much more antibodies
    3. Primary --> IgM, secondary --> IgG
    4. During formation secondary immune response, cells are slightly changing structure of antibodies, trying to fit better the allergen. Binding strength/affinity increases
  • 1.2 Lecture 2: Gut mucosal immune system

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  • How thick is the mucosal layer in the large and small intestine?

    Large intestine --> thick layer
    Small intestine --> thinner layer
  • In which 3 ways are food components absorbed in the gut?

    1. Very small molecules --> completely digested (proteins, monosaccharides) taken up directly by epithelial cells, passes into mucosa, used for energy
    2. Dendritic cells --> There is a DC population that has an extension that squeezes between 2 epithelial cells, this extension of cytoplasm can directly sample food stuff from the gut lumen, not having to pass through epithelial cells
    3. Large complexes (aggregates) --> taken up by M cells, situated on top of Peyer's patches. M cell absorbs material, passes it to another DC that activates T and B cells --> start of immune response
  • What is the problem in the leaky gut syndrome?

    Tight junctions between epithelial cells are not regulated properly

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