General Medicine - Bariatry and Ghrelin

15 important questions on General Medicine - Bariatry and Ghrelin

What is the definition of infectious diseases? 2 types...

Illnesses that are contageous. They can spreak from one person to another. They are caused by microorganisms (pathogens). 2 types are viral and bacterial infections, but parasites, fungi and one-celled organisms(protozoa) can also be responsible.

What is the incubation period of these infectious diseases?

It is the period between infection and the first signs and symptoms associated with the disease.
This is a symptom-less stage where microbes multiply inside the body and can also spread to other people.
The length is highly variable and is dependent on the type of microorganisms and the person's immune system.

What is the period of illness characterised as?

The step in development of a disease where a person feels the typical signs and symptoms associated with the disease. Also the stage where you can most easily transmit a communicable disease to another person.
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What is horizontal transmission?

The spread of a pathogen, or disease-causing entity, via direct or indirect contact between individuals, animals (zoonotic disease), or other organsims(insects, vector-borne).

What is vertical transmission?

The infectious agent was spread from a parent to child, and the infection may have occurred before, during, or shortly after birth. Example: HIV

Infectious period =
Case fatality =
Basic reproductive rate =
Secondary attack rate =

Infectious period =
Time in which person can transmit the disease

Case fatality =
The proportion of people that diet after infection

Basic reproductive rate =
Average number of secondary cases that occur as the result of one infected individual

Secondary attack rate =
Proportion of people who gets exposed to the disease and gets ill

Who is at risk for malaria?

Most cases and deaths in sub-saharan Africa.
Regions of South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Wester Pacific and America are also at risk.

Infants, children <5yrs, pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDS, non-immune migrants, mobile populations and travellers are at a higher risk of contracting malaria.

Diagnosis and treatment of malaria:

Early diagnosis and treatment reduces disease and prevents deaths, and also reduces malaria transmission.

Treatment: artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)

What is tuberculosis (TB) ?

Caused by bacteria that most often affect the lungs. It can spread from person to person through air (cough, sneeze, spit).
People infected with TB have 5-10% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB.

Who is at risk of getting Tuberculosis?

  • It mostly affects adults in their most productive years. But all age groups are at risk.
  • 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries
  • people with HIV have 18 times more change to develop TB
  • the risk is also greater in persons suffering from other conditions that impair the immune system
  • people with undernutrition are 3 times more at risk
  • alcohol use disorder and tabacco smoking increase the risk of TB by a factor 3.3 and 1.6 respectively

How can tuberculosis be diagnosed?

With the use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests as the initial diagnostic test in all persons with signs of TB. -> they have high diagnostic accuracy and will lead to major improvements in the early detection of TB and drug-resistant TB.
Example rapid tests: Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra and Truenat assays.

Diagnosing multidrug-resistant and other resistant forms of TB can be complex and expensive. It is hard to diagnose TB in children.

How can tuberculosis be treated?

With a standard 6 month course of 4 antimicrobial drugs that are provided with info and support to the patient by a health worker or trained volunteer.
Without such support, treatment adherence is more difficult.

What are the symptoms of HIV?

Symptoms vary depending on the stage of infection. Though people living with HIV tend to be most infectious in the first few months after infection.
In the first few weeks, people may experience no symptoms or an influenza-like illness including fever, headache, rash or sore throat.
As the infection progressively weakens the immune system, more symptoms develop such as: swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, fever, diarrhoea and cough.

Without treatment, they could develop severe illnesses such as: tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, severe bacterial infections, and cancers such as lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoma.

How can HIV be diagnosed?

Through rapid diagnostic tests that provide same-day results. There are also self-tests.
No single test can provide a full HIV diagnosis: conformatory testing is required.
The diagnostic tests detect antibodies produced by the person as part of their immune response to fight HIV. People develop antibodies within 28 days of infection.

How can HIV be treated?

It can be managed by three or more antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Currect antiretroviral therapy (ART) does not cure HIV but is suppresses viral replication within a person's body and allows an individual's immune system recovery to strengthen and regain the capacity to fight off opportunistic infections and some cancers.

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