General Medicine - ATP yiels, TCA cycle

7 important questions on General Medicine - ATP yiels, TCA cycle

Risk factors of stroke are...

  • > 60 yrs
  • stroke or TIA history
  • smoking / inactive lifestyle
  • high blood pressure, heart disease, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity
  • family history of strokes

How to diagnose a stroke?

  • Check alertness; immobility of one side of the face; trouble with coordination and balance, vision or speech
  • Check numbness, weakness
  • Physical exam: blood pressure, listen to the heart
  • Blood tests and imaging tests (CT, MRI, ultrasound)
  • EKG (heart electrical activity) and EEG (brain electrical activity

What are important factors when looking at a blood test in stroke diagnosis?

  • Complete blood count: check for level of platelets (help bloodclotting). And measure electrolyte levels to indicate kidneyfunction.
  • Clotting time: PT test (prothrombin time) and PTT test (partial thromboplastin time) can check how quickly you blood clots. If it takes too long, it could be a sign of bleeding problems.
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Risk factors of meningitis are...

More common in age groups: children < 5yrs, teens/young aduls 16-25yrs, adults > 55
  • a danger for people with medical condiitons (e.g., damage/missing spleen, long-term disease, immune system disorders)
  • because meningitis can spread easily through germs, it happens in places where people live close to each other

How to diagnose meningitis?

  • Physical exam: check for neck stiffness, skin rash
  • blood tests to find bacteria
  • CT/MRI of the head to find swelling/inflammation
  • collect cerebrospinal fluid can tell the cause of meningitis

How to treat meningitis?

Depends on the type.
  • Bacterial: treatment with antibiotics right away. A drug that targets the specific bacteria. Corticosteroids given to ease inflammation.
  • Vial: goes away on its own without treatment. Stay in bed and drink a lot of fluid. Can take antiviral medication
  • Fungal: antifungal medications

What is ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) ?

Incurable, progressive, neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Caused by loss of signallingof upper and lower motor neurons. The brain is no longer able to send messages to the muscles. A person's brain loses connection with the muscles, taking away the ability to walk, dress, write, speak, swallow, breathe, shortening the life span.

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