Cellular components of the nervous system - brain perturbation that elucidate cognitive functions

13 important questions on Cellular components of the nervous system - brain perturbation that elucidate cognitive functions

Name the perturbation methods most commonly used in cognitive neuroscience

  • Perturbation imposed by stroke, trauma or disease
  • Pharmacological perturbation
  • Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation
  • Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation
  • optogenetics

How where perturbations first accomplished

Correlating a patient's signs, symptoms and behavior during life with the location of brain lesions discovered upon autopsy

What are limitations of clinical-pathological correlation in humans

Brain damage is the result of many factors
There are many individual differences
  • Higher grades + faster learning
  • Never study anything twice
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Discover Study Smart

What are the two approaches for linking cognitive functions and neural processes

  • Brain is perturbed in some way and task performance on a  set of cognitive tasks is measured
  • neuromonitoring approach an experimenter manipulates a particular cognitive process in an experimental taks and measures the associated changes in brain activity.

What are the downsides of making surgical lesions in animals

Training and assessment is more difficult and there are ethical concerns

Which two forms do the pharmacological studies in humans have taken two main forms

  • Examine the influence of chronic drug use or abuse on cognitive processes.
  • Administer drugs in a  experimental setting

What is the difference between agonists and antagonists

  • A agonists bind to and activate receptors in a manner similar to a neurotransmitter
  • a antagonist is where a drugs bind to and blocks receptors

What is direct electrical stimulation

A way where electrodes are placed onto or into the brain of an animals.

Name the two ways i which electrodes can be placed

  • Transiently; duration of the surgery
  • chronically; for a longer amount of time

What is Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

A method where a magnetic field is made in a coil. Which creates a reversible brain lesion limited to the underlying area

What is called when a series of TMS pulses are used to study cognitive processes

Repetitive tms (rTMS)

What are the the drawbacks of using TMS

  • Affect a relatively large area, limiting anatomical resolution
  • transcranial stimulation can be delivered effective to only relatively superficial brain regions
  • concurrent stimulation of scalp and head muscles

What are the two types of stimulation

  • Anodal (positive) stimulation is thought to increase the cortical excitability of the area being stimulated
  • Cathodal stimulation is thought to decrease the excitability 

The question on the page originate from the summary of the following study material:

  • A unique study and practice tool
  • Never study anything twice again
  • Get the grades you hope for
  • 100% sure, 100% understanding
Remember faster, study better. Scientifically proven.
Trustpilot Logo