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Summary: Arm - Qualitative Part

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Read the summary and the most important questions on ARM - Qualitative part

  • 1 Research paradigms

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  • What is a research paradigm?

    A research paradigm is the basic belief system or worldview that guides the investigator. It's about how we see the world and our fundamental assumptions about the world. It is the philosophy of science. Good research can be defined in different ways according to the four paradigms.
  • What is the difference between ontology, epistemology and methodology?

    The questions on ontology and epistemology are primary, the question on methodology is secundairy.

    is the philosophy of being. Its about the reality and ranges from radical realism to radical nominalism. >
    Epistemology is about the relationship between knower and what can be known. Its about our assumptions on knowledge production and research work; how it is conducted. It't between two poles: positivism (dualism between knowledge and knower) and anti-positivism (interpretation and language) 

    Methodology is about the way a researcher can inquire knowledge and go about findings of whatever he or she belief that can be known.
  • What is the epistemology difference between the four paradigms?

    Positivism - the researcher investigates the object without influencing. Replicable findings are true. 

    Post-positivism - the ideal is to observe objectively. However, dualism is not possible to maintain. Replicated findings are probably true. 

    Critical theory - the researcher and object are interactively linked in such a way findings are value mediated. The separation between ontology and epistemology is challenged. 

    Constructivism - findings are created through the research process. Distinction between ontology and epistemology disappears. 
  • What is the methodological difference between the four paradigms?

    Positivism - questions and hypothesis to verify the truth. Experimental, manipulative. Quantification. 

    Post-positivism - modified, experimental, manipulative, falsification of hypothesis. May include qualitative methods. Triangulation.

    Critical theory - Dialogue to transform ignorance into more informed consciousness.  

    Constructivism - Dialogue and hermeneutical. It's about the interaction between investigator and respondents and about interpretation. The researcher became a participant. 
  • Distinguish the four paradigms based on:- Research aim- Nature of knowledge- Knowledge accumulation- Goodness of quality criteria- Values- Ethics- Voice of the researcher- Training- Accommodation- Hegemony

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  • What two critiques do exists about quantification?

    - Internal paradigm critique, which is about the basic assumptions that define the nature of positivistic inquiry. 

    - External paradigm critique, which is about the adjustments on the basic assumptions. 
  • 2 Qualitative Research Design

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  • What's the contradiction in Flick's model of research design?

    Flick developed a model of research design, ranging from the interest in a value, through influences, to a research design, through components, to doing the research. However, although he argues the research design is an iterative process, he visualized it linearly.
  • Intended comparison is about the dimensions, levels and laws you want to draw comparison. This has implications for the research sampling and planning. What's the difference between the four levels of comparison?

    The lowest level of comparison are the dimensions (1-n). E.g. Comparison of the definition of health, given by each interviewee. 

    On the second level we could compare cases as cases in groups or across groups. 

    On the third level we could compare in a group among the cases and then do the same in the other group. The final comparison between the results of the group. 

    On the fourth level, we could compare the level of context, e.g. Cultures. Looking for differences among the cases or answers coming from one or the other cultural background. 
  • Flick discusses 4 basic research designs, and two distinctions that relate to this. Elaborate on this.

    Flick describes the following two distinctions: 
    - Cross-sectional vs longitudinal studies 
    1 point in time vs longer period of time 

    - Comparative vs case study 
    Multiple cases vs one case 

    Four basic research designs: 
    - Retrospective (looking back to a longer period of time in history, that's why this is discussed to be a substitute of longitudinal study) 
    - Longitudinal (longer period of time) 
    - Comparative case 
    - Case study 
  • What are codes of conducts?

    These are behavior rules, arranged for a specific context. Mostly, these codes are arranged when something has completely gone wrong.

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