Time Periods - Baroque Age - Historical Events

3 important questions on Time Periods - Baroque Age - Historical Events

Consequences of the Reformation led to the Baroque age.
Name the main consequences:

  • Religion used as justification for wars.
    • Civil wars, religious rebellions, massacres, witch hunts.
    • Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
  • England becomes Protestant.
    • Civil wars (1642-1651).
    • Glorious Revolution (1688).
  • Absolutism and Divine Kings.
  • Counter-Reformation.
    • Council of Trent (1545-1563).

What can you tell about the Thirty Years' War?

  • 1618-1648
  • Started civil and religious wars within Holy Roman Empire.
    • Protestant states (especially Bohemia) vs very Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II.
    • Other states get involved, linked to religion.
      • Ferdinand II nephew of Philip III of Spain (House of Habsburg).
      • France wants to weaken Habsburgers.
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648).
    • War was inconclusive.
    • HRE weakened (25-40% population died).
    • France & England rise as world powers.
    • End of Spain as world power.
    • Emergence of new independent states:
      • Dutch Republic, Italian city states, Switserland, increased independency for German states.
  • Last important Religious War in Europe.

What were the outcomes of the Council of Trent (1545-1563)?

  • Not much Theological change.
  • Rome the only authority in interpretation of the Bible/religious matters.
    • Inquisition, witch trials, censorship.
  • Intellectual understanding of religion less important than experience and emotion.
  • Renew interest in religion by:
    • Rome invests in the arts to stimulate riligious experience.
    • Religious art should be easily understandable and accessible (& contemporary).
    • Realism.
    • Target emotions audience.

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