Lipids - Lipid digestion and absorption

18 important questions on Lipids - Lipid digestion and absorption

To what are trigliserides broken down?

2 fatty acids and 1 mono-glyceride (glucerol + 1 fatty acid).

What are the enzymes that help with fat digestion?

  • pancreatic lipase (pancreas)
  • gastric lipase (stomach), not for digestion but for detection
  • lingual lipase (seliva), not for digestion but for detection

What is bile acid?

  • It functions as an emulsifier
  • It is made of cholestrol
  • it breaks fat up and lipase has easyer acces to the fat.
  • It is produced in the liver form cholestorl and storred togheter with cholestrol and phospholipids in the gall blatter.
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What is CCL (chlorcystokinin)?

A hormone that is triggerd when diatary fat enters into the small intestens.
The hormone itself triggers gallblatter ontraction to release its content in the duodendum.

What is cholic acid?

It is mane form of bile acis.
Released with gall blatter contration.
Attached to AA taurine or glycine. You will get glycocholate or taurocholate.
This are conjegated bile acids.

What is the fuction of bile acids?

They help the formation of micelles by forming a cover over fatty acids.

What happens to micelles in the body?

They are teken up int the body trough intestenal cells there the fatty acids are recover to triglyceries. This is called re-esterification.

What happens to triglycerides in the body when eaten?

They are captured by an enzyme called lipopriein lipase (LPL). These are imprtant for 2 tissues:
mucles -> need the enrgy
adipose tissue:   storrage of fat (exess energy source)

What happens if you don't eat for a while?

Internal fat storage is broken down and will go into the bloodstream and go to other tissues including the muscle.

What happens if your LDL recepetor works bad or well?

Works bad: high chanse of hard disease (more cholsestrol in blood)
Works well: low chanse of hart disease (low cholestorl in blood)

What does insulin doe with lipoprotien lipase?

It tirigers the lipase activity in order to make sure everything is stored.

How is fat broken down for energy?

Fat undergoes beta oxidation and acetyl-coA are formed.
These acetyl-coA go into tricarboxylic acid cyle (TAC) and NADH or FADH is formed wich lead to ATP.
This second step was the citric acid cucle.

What can faty acids do to genes?

They can turn on gens by binding to special recepors called PPARs

How are fatty acids stored?

As lipid droples
Fat cells --> large lipid droplets
muscle/many others --> small lipid droplets.

What is the function of cholestrol?

  1. Making of bile acids for digestion of fats
  2. Make certain hormones
  3. Component of cell membrane.

Is cholestrol a nutrient?

No your body can make its on.
1/3 comes from consumption.

What is the cholestrol input?

Cholestrol diet + synthesysed cholestrol by boddy.

What is the cholestrol output?

In feces as cholestrol that was excreted as part of the bile or as bile acid made of cholestrol.

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