Summary: Immunology

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Read the summary and the most important questions on Immunology

  • 1 Basic information on the immune system

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  • What is the difference between the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system?

    The innate immune system is the system you already have when you are born and doesn’t change during your life in comparison to the adaptive immune system which is the system that you develop during live and gets stronger. 
  • What is the difference between antigens and antibodies?

    Antigens are substances that trigger the body to create a defense against invaders. Antibodies circulate in the body that are created to get rid of the antigens.
  • What is the peripheral tissue?

    Peripheral tissues are skin, gut, lungs/the outer layer of the body. But also, organs that response to a change in environment etc. 
  • 1.3 Lymphatic system

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  • What happens in the lymph nodes?

    In the lymph nodes pathogens and foreign particles circulating in the lymph encounter and activate macrophages and other cells that carry out defensive actions. 
  • What are the three major function of the lymphatic system?

    1. Returns fluid to the heart.
    2. Helps large molecules enter the blood (hormones and lipids) 
    3. Immune surveillance 
  • What is the function of the spleen (milt)?

    - fights invading germs in the blood.
    - Controls the level of blood cells.
    - Filters the blood and removes any old damaged red blood cells.
  • What is the difference between the central and peripheral lymphoid organs?

    Central organs are the bone marrow and the spleen, and the peripheral organs are the lymph nodes, the spleen and the lymphatic vessels in the gut, nasal and respiratory tract.
  • What is the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)?

    The MALT initiated immune responses to specific antigens encountered along all mucosal surfaces.
  • What is the difference between BALT, GALT and NALT

    All are MALT’s. GALT protects the lining of the gut, the NALT protects the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract, and the BALT protects the bronchial regions of the lower respiratory tract. 
  • 2 Defence against bacteria

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  • What are the four main steps of the immune response during an infection? 

    1. Establishment of an infection: the microbe colonizes and increases its number. 
    2. Inductive phase: Adaptive immune response starts, restrained growth of pathogen by innate immune response.
    3. Effector phase: 4-7 days the molecules and effectors cells of adaptive immune response starts to clear the infection. 
    4. Memory phase: infection cleared, antigen has fallen below threshold, residual antibodies and effector cells result in memory lasting protection against that pathogen. 

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