Summary: Introduction Into The Neurosciences

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  • 1 Neuroanatomy

  • 1.2 Lecture 2 Neurocytology

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  • Of what parts is a neuron built?

    Dendrite, axon, soma (cell body) and synapse
    - Dendrites are afferent
    - Soma is also called perikaryon
    - The end branches are also called telodendria
    - The end points are called terminals
  • What is axonal conduction?

    The spreading of an action potential along an axon, initiated at the axon hillhock. This action potential is caused by an all or none signal from volted gated ion channels, located at the axon hillhock. There is no attenuation (demping). Isolation of the axon (myelin sheath and node of Ranvier) increases the conduction speed, this is called saltatory conduction
  • What is synaptic transmission?

    The release of neurotransmitters at a synapse to a next dendrite. The neurotransmitters can either be inhibitory or excitatory. The neurotransmitters cause opening of ligand gated ion channels in the dendrite, this causes a change in membrane potential (post-synaptic potential). This membrane potential is spread along the dendrite to eventually reach the axon hillhock, if strong enough.
  • What are ependymal cells?

    Epithelial lining of ventricles (CNS glial cells). They may be ciliated to circulate CSF and they form a permeable barrier between CSF and ECF. 

    The epithelial forms a choroid plexus at specific points. This produces CSF and absorbs waste and unnecessary solutes from CSF.

    CSF - cerebrospinal fluid
    ECF - extracellular fluid
  • What are microglial cells?

    Mononuclear phagocytes. This cells did not emerge from the nervous system (as the others), but developed somewhere else. They can secrete neurotrophic factors that stimulate repair or apoptosis
  • 1.3 Lecture 3 Cranium and vertebral column

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  • What is the neurocranium and what the viscerocranium?

    The neurocranium is the upper part of the skull, it houses the brain, cranial meninges, blood vessels, and cranial nerves.
    The viscerocranium are the oral cavities, nasal cavities, and orbits.

    The neurocranium is full-grown at birth, whereas the viscerocranium still grows (to allow birth). The spinal cord enters the neurocranium via the foramen magnum.

  • What is the function of the vertebrae?

    Protection, support, rigid/flexible axis and posture/locomotion
  • Where do the vertebrae consist of?

    Corpus and arch
  • 1.4 Lecture 4 Spinal and cranial nerves

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  • What nerves does the dorsal root contain?

    The dorsal root contains sensory neurons, this are the afferent nerves (towards the brain). The axons originate from neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and they terminate in the dorsal horn.
  • Where do the dorsal and ventral root fuse?

    Intervertebral foramen

    The dural sleeve attaches here (extension of dura mater)

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