Political ideas and ideologies - Other ideological traditions

14 important questions on Political ideas and ideologies - Other ideological traditions

What is the central theme in anarchism?

The belief that political authority in all. Its forms, and especially in the form of the state, is both evil and unnecessary

What is the central theme within anarchism?

Belief that political authority in all its forms, and especially in the form of the state, is both evil and unnecessary.
Free individuals managing their own affairs through voluntary agreement and cooperation.

What is the difference between liberal and socialist anarchism?

Liberal anarchism has the desire to maximize liberty and choice, also on free market economics (anarcho-capitalism). Socialist ideas such as community, cooperation and equality make mutualism; a trading system without exploitation or profit.
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On what basis has this anarchist preference been developed?

On the basis of two rival traditions: liberal individualism, and socialist communitarianism.
- Liberalism: based on individualism, and desire to maximize liberty.
- Socialism: community, cooperation, equality and common ownership.

Why did fascism arise

Fascism rose in the nineteenth century against the ideas of the French Revolution (rationalism, freedom, equality) and these were overturned into leadership, struggle and war.

What was the difference between German Nazism and Italian fascism?

Germany was more focussed on racialism and Italy more an extreme form of statism (state directs everything)

What are the underlying themes of feminism?

Society is characterized by sexual or gender inequality and the structure of male power should be overturned.

What are the differences between liberal, socialist and radical feminism?

Liberal = a belief in a genderless personhood
Socialist = the link between female subordination and the capitalist mode of production, where females are only responsible for the family
Radical = A sexual revolution, men are the enemy

Where does cosmopolitanism belief in?

A cosmopolis/world state, but more of a moral and cultural character.

What is a world government?

The idea of all humankind united under one common political authority, whether a unitary world state with supranational authority or a federal body that shares sovereignty with nation - states

Where does fundamentalism often arise?

In deeply troubled societies afflicted by an actual or perceived crisis of identity

What is the most politically significant form of religious fundamentalism and how do they arise?

Islamic fundamentalism.

Fundamentalism arises in deeply troubled societies, particularly societies afflicted by an actual or perceived crisis of identity.
Factors that have contributed to these crises: spread of secularism (belief that religion should not intrude into worldly affairs) and the weakening of society's moral fabric, and the search in postcolonial states for a non-Western/anti-Western political identity.

What is the core idea of religious fundamentalism?

That religion cannot and should not be confined to the private sphere.
Instead it finds its highest and proper expression in the politics of popular mobilization and social regeneration.
Religious values and beliefs constitute the organizing principles of public existence.

(This works well in the Islam, as it's not just a religion, but a complete way of life, with instructions on moral, political and economic behaviour for individuals and nations).

What is the difference between right- and left-wing populists?

Left-wing populists are egalitarian = in socio-economic classes to prioritize their concerns
Right-wing are either national populists or authoritarian populists = depending on their emphasis.

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