The industrial transformation of europe, 1750-1850 - social, cultural and environmental imapcts

12 important questions on The industrial transformation of europe, 1750-1850 - social, cultural and environmental imapcts

What drew people to cities?

the factories were located in the cities and needed a labor force. service functions also needed an increasing number of workers. people also traveled across borders to find work, like belgians going to work in french mines or irish working in english territory

What influence did urbilization have on health

due to a multitude of ills, mortality rates rose. a difference in wealth also showed, with the rich having a far higher average age of death then the poor

Where did the poor people live?

since the cities couldn't keep up with the increasing demand for housing and many poor lived in urban slums, where, due to poor conditions, disease flourished
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Why was the worker in such a precarious position?

the worker fully relied on factory owners for income and had little to no protection from their employer's whims. they had no backup like in the old system where people transitioned between farming and putting-out system

What were the dangers of labor?

factory work was often hard physical labor and there were other risks, like being exposed to chemicals. children workers were stunted in their development and young deaths and injuries were common

How did wages affect the working family dynamic?

a lot of income for a family of 5 went to providing food. an unskilled worker did not earn enough to support his entire family and often the entire family had to work to meet the family's need, including the women

Did the situation of the workers improve over time?

optimist historians say yes, through trickle down economics. pessimist historians say this was not always the case. but their real economic standing did improve over time and through more wages and low prizes, they could improve their lives. these higher wages were however of little use since they often faced periods of unemployement

How did the industrial revolution affect the place of women?

women used to have an active role in production or bussiness, helping with production or bookkeeping. this was however no longer required in the new companies and women ceased participating

If they no longer worked, what did women do?

women devoted themselves to motherhood, children and running the household

How did industrilization affect the environment?

the debris of mining and waste of industry were dumped on mounds and often covered acress. forests were cut down to supply wood for the mines and charcoal, resulting in deforestation. rivers were contaminated by waste and caused disease

How did the perception of time change?

time became more relevant. shifts were strictly rotated and people were more aware of time because of this

What were the benefits of urbanisation?

A large concentration of people provided convenient markets for goods etc. They also encouraged  a more intense social and cultural engagement, which could support scientific societies or laboratories where people could share ideas.

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