Summary: Scientific Methdology In Archaeology

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  • 1 Evolution

  • 1.1 History of Evolutionary Thought

    This is a preview. There are 12 more flashcards available for chapter 1.1
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  • What are characteristics of the Classical Philosophers?

    • Species are static and unchanging
    • Life is unchanging
    • Ladder of organic life
    • Species are in a fixed position and can not move up and down the ladder 
  • What are the characteristics of Taoism?

    • Denies fixity of species
    • Humans, nature and the heavens are in a constant state of transformation 
    • Not exactly evolution, because species can turn into other species 
  • What are the characteristics of the Islamic Golden Age?

    • Organic states are in a constant state of competition
    • First writings on the struggle for life; 
      • How things are struggling
      • How certain species have certain advantages and live longer 
    • Transmutation from the non-living to the living
  • What are characteristics of the Christian West?

    • Literal interpretations of the bible
    • Fixed date for the creation of the earth
      • Based on the bible by James Usher, he calculated back in time
    • Some humans were considered better than other humans
    • Species organized in a vertical orientation
  • What are characteristics of the Age of Exploration?

    • Earth is no longer the centre of the universe
    • Telescope to find new worlds
    • Invention of the microscope
    • Diversity of people, plants and animals discovered
    • Discovery of the great apes
  • What are the contributions of de Buffon?

    • Attempted to describe all variation in the natural world
    • Species are the highest level at which animals could be organized
    • Defines species as those who can interbreed
    • Biological variation is a product of adaptation to ones environment
    • Wrote Histoire Naturelle    
  • What are the contributions of Linnaeus?

    • Identification of species
      • Classifies species
      • Talks about a relationship that Buffon did not quite get
    • Creates a nested hierarchy
    • Classification of people
      • Not published, because of the church
  • What are the contributions of Cuvier?

    • Found fossil bones that have never been seen before
  • What are the contributions of Lyell?

    • Determined that the Earth is very old
      • Using modern processes to extrapolate what had happened in the past
    • Theory of Uniformitarianism
  • What are the contributions of Erasmus Darwin?

    • Life evolved from a single common ancestor
    • Species can evolve from one into another

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